Variegated squirrel bornavirus
(VSBV-1; family Bornaviridae, species Mammalian 2 orthobornavirus) is a new zoonotic virus that causes severe and eventually fatal encephalitis in humans.
The family Bornaviridae comprises the classical mammalian bornaviruses (Mammalian 1 bornavirus
with borna disease virus; BoDV-1 and -2); avian bornaviruses (Passeriform 1/2 bornavirus
, Psittaciform 1/2 bornavirus
, Waterbird 1 bornavirus
); and a recently described Elapid 1 bornavirus
from snakes (Loveridge's garter snake virus 1) (1).
We report detection of avian bornavirus
RNA in the brains of apparently healthy gulls.
In 2009, aquatic bird bornavirus
1 was detected in free-ranging Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) in Ontario, Canada (5).
(ABV) was identified in the brain by immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.
In 2008, two independent research groups identified a novel virus in PDD-affected birds and named it avian bornavirus
(ABV) (2,3); the researchers suggested ABV as the most likely cause of PDD.
I require a Chlamydophila polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, psittacine beak and feather DNA probe, bornavirus
PCR test, and full blood chemistry panel, along with the previously mentioned tests.
We surveyed free-ranging Canada geese (Branta canadensis), trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator), mute swans (Cygnus olor), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to avian bornavirus
(ABV) and of cloacal shedding of ABV RNA in southern Ontario, Canada.
In 2008, 2 independent groups of research scientists described a new virus, avian bornavirus
(ABV), which was amplified from samples from PDD-affected birds.
To investigate the possibility of in ovo infection with avian bornavirus
(ABV) in wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 53 eggs were opportunistically collected at various stages of embryonic development from 16 free-ranging goose nests at a large, urban zoo site, where ABV infection was known to be present in this species.
Only recently has the cause of the disease been identified by characterization of a newly discovered member of the family Bornaviridae, the avian bornavirus
(ABV), which has been detected in affected psittacines (3,4).
Twenty captive psittacines that died of suspected PDD were necropsied and 10 were submitted to histopathology, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (1HC) for avian bornavirus