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loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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A word adopted from another language and completely or partially naturalized, as very and hors d'oeuvre, both from French.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.



a word in one language that has been borrowed from another language and usu. naturalized, as wine, taken into Old English from Latin vinum, or macho, taken into Modern English from Spanish.
[1870–75; translation of German Lehnwort]
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.loanword - a word borrowed from another language; e.g. `blitz' is a German word borrowed into modern English
word - a unit of language that native speakers can identify; "words are the blocks from which sentences are made"; "he hardly said ten words all morning"
Latinism - a word or phrase borrowed from Latin
Gallicism - a word or phrase borrowed from French
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
When the borrowed word is inflected, its original form is preserved but linked by hyphen to enclitic morphemes to individualize and mark it as 'foreign', e.g.
How can a foreign borrowed word be more appealing to a person than the language in his blood?
Malay language is a language that has many borrowed words, Allah also is a borrowed word," Andrew argued.
It also allows the retrieval of idioms (see fare fiasco), adaptations, translations or words borrowed from other languages--mostly Ancient Greek, Latin, and, starting from the second half of the eighteenth century, French (for example, see the entry for the word opera, without any other specification; probably, as LesMu points out, this word began as Italian jargon which, after circulating outside, later came back to Italy as a borrowed word from French).
In order to determine the laws of adaption, she investigates whether a borrowed word preserves the shape in had in the source language, or changes to match the phonetic rules of Tuvan.
(18) aib --> aibu /a.i.bu/ 'shame' baia --> bei /be.i/ 'price' iddaaa --> dai /da.i/ 'claim', 'demand' kaid --> kaidi /ka.i.di/ 'obstinate', 'disobedient' naam --> naam /naam/ 'yes', 'certainly' taab --> taabu /ta.a.bu/ 'trouble' za:id --> zaidi /za.i.di/ 'more', 'besides' It seems that where a borrowed word has three or more vowels in a row, some are deleted so that at most two remain.
This is not just the substitution of a borrowed word for a native one, it involves the introduction of an explicit marker of subordination for clauses previously marked only by future tense or incompletive aspect (Suarez 1982: 136).
Coverage includes an overview of Japan's importation of English and the modern generation of gairago; the "paradox of cognates" and the effect of loanwords on the learning of English; common loanwords in Japanese that are based on high-frequency academic English and an assessment of the quality of these cognates; barriers to Japanese learners of English in utilizing their first-language resource, particularly their ability to extend borrowed word knowledge within English word families; and some general principles and specific suggestions about how to make use of gairago in teaching.
Often this is simply a literal, but accurate, clever translation and may end up replacing the borrowed word. One good example is bilgisayar (knowledge counter), which has successfully ousted komputur (computer) from Turkish.
Yes, the base is still largely Tagalog but it now includes borrowed words from some 180 other languages in the country, as well as foreign languages.
The designation of particular, specific mental diseases, as usual, are borrowed words. This general tendency is due to the fact that the nature and etiology of mental illness were usually ignored by the majority of the language speakers--their goal was to denote the fact of illness in general.