Understanding

Bose-Einstein condensation is very important in the study of magnetism and superconductivity.

After setting out the foundations, they cover

Bose-Einstein condensation, quantum kinetic theory, quantum matter waves, ultra-cold molecules and scattering, ultra-cold Fermions, and atoms in optical lattices.

To obtain the

Bose-Einstein condensation in the gas of this metal, for which it is characteristic that at practically low final temperature practically all the atoms (molecules) entering it make up one energy level corresponding to their zero momentum (the amount of motion) The experimenters <<captured>> the atoms of the alkaline chemical element rubidium Rb with <<magnetic traps,>> and then by their (atoms) super-deep cooling (to temperatures of the order of 10-5 K) the <<web>> of laser beams slowed down their motion [15].

Thus, a scheme is elaborated to unambiguously demonstrate

Bose-Einstein condensation of semiconductor excitons.

Smith,

Bose-Einstein Condensation in Dilute Gases, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002.

Bose-Einstein condensation with internal degrees of freedom in alkali atom gases.

By cooling fermions, in addition to bosons, researchers can explore a variety of phenomena such as

Bose-Einstein condensation, Cooper pairing of fermions, ultracold atomic interactions and superfluidity in dilute atomic gases.

of Timisoara, Romania) offers a unitary treatment of the main actual theories of matter: the Density Functional Theory for fermions, the

Bose-Einstein Condensation for bosons, and the Chemical Bonding as a special realization of the first two in the so called mixed fermionic-bosonic states.

The

Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) has a wide application for investigation of superconductivity of metals and superfluidity of liquids.

But it was proposed theoretically in the 1920s and, soon after superfluidity was discovered in liquid helium in the 1930s, researchers argued that

Bose-Einstein condensation could be the explanation.

It is now used in areas ranging from basic science such as

Bose-Einstein condensation, all the way to devices with real-world impacts such as atomic clocks and navigation instruments," DeMille said.

Following an opening lecture reviewing Einstein's contributions to science in his Annus Maribilis, the remaining lectures discuss Einstein's work on light quanta, the relevance of Einstein to current debates in cosmology, the properties of neutron stars and black holes, the nature of dark matter and dark energy, the possible contributions of string theory to Einstein's hoped-for unified theory of nature, and the work of Satyendra Nath Bose on

Bose-Einstein condensation, among other topics.