Topics discussed include the rise of Boulangism
, the Dreyfus Affair, the rise of anti-Semitism, and the effects of French nationalism on growing proto-fascist movements in Europe.
He instead retained an enthusiasm for strong, authoritarian rule that did not exclude dictatorial republicanism, (7) which originated in his boyhood fascination with Napoleon Bonaparte, and which he upheld even after the failure of Boulangism
. Often apparently in contradiction with himself, Barres flirted with socialist ideas during his first mandate as a depute in Nancy between 1889 and 1893, while his commitment to le parti de l'ordre was unwavering in the aftermath of the Dreyfus affair.
(27) John Keiger, "Patriotism, Politics and Policy in the Foreign Ministry, 1880-1940," In Tombs Robert (ed.), Nationhood and Nationalism in France: from Boulangism
to the Great War, 1889-1918 (London : Harper Collins, 1991), 255-266.
(37) Marc Crapez, La Gauche reactionnaire (Paris, 1998) for the careers of Albert Regnard, Jules Soury, and Boulangism
as a distant forerunner of fascism; Pierre-Andre Taguieff, La Force du prejuge, Essai sur le racisme et ses doubles (Paris, 1987).
historical moment when the collapse of Boulangism
, the Panama Canal
The contributions--ranging chronologically from Michel Winnock's "Socialism and Boulangism
" to Pascal Perrineau's study of the National Front from 1984 to 1998--offer substantial evidence to support Arnold's characterization of the French extreme Right and its perenniality since la belle epoque.