(49) These tactics earned the label of "Boulwarism
The practical opposite of reciprocity, Boulwarism
, in which one party proposes a single take-it-or-leave-it offer, almost always is perceived as an act of bad faith.
Another gambit involves Boulwarism
in which the negotiator is not willing to accept the other side's research studies or proposals.
'--as it became known--was not only about contract negotiations.
But G.E.'s public affairs strategy and political viewpoint were so novel at the time that they acquired their own label: "Boulwarism
On behalf of the United Steel Workers of America, where he had the greatest direct influence, Goldberg therefore succeeded during the first Eisenhower years - even as managers were turning toward the confrontational tactics of "Boulwarism
" - in securing, and improving on, the gains workers had made during the 1930s and early 1940s.(p.
Arguably, an objective which is also a minimum position (the "final offer first" strategy, or Boulwarism
) could most appropriately be classified as being a minimum position; but the participants themselves tended not to see it that way.