(2016) studied non-clonal brachiolaria
that were identified as older stages of the cloning larvae.
Surgically bisected late bipinnaria/early brachiolaria
larvae were either starved, fed three concentrations of monospecific diets of the phytoplankton Chactocerous calcitrans.
exigua is an ovipositer and has a distinct benthic brachiolaria
(Byrne 1991, 1992).
This species produces large, buoyant eggs (0.6 [+ or -] 0.03 mm diameter), and has a typical lecithotrophic brachiolaria
Bipinnariae of the sea star Pisaster ochraceous reared at seasonally natural temperatures of 12-15 [degrees]C with abundant, mixed algal food (50,000 cells [ml.sup.-1]) demonstrated a 5-fold increase in incidence of cloning ([approximately equal to]6%, from the baseline rate of [approximately equal to]1.2%) during the time of transformation to the brachiolaria
stage, at about 50 d in laboratory culture (Vickery and McClintock, 2000).
Asteroids with planktotrophic development have two larval stages: the feeding bipinnaria and the settlement-stage brachiolaria
. Possession of the feeding bipinnaria larva is considered to represent the ancestral developmental mode for modern Asteroidea (review, Strathmann, 1975; Byrne, 2006; Raff and Byrne, 2006).
larvae, which are characterized by a specialized attachment complex comprising three larval arms (brachia) and an adhesive disc, occur in the life cycle of many asteroids whatever their nutritional mode (planktotrophy versus lecithotrophy) or their developmental habitat (pelagic, benthic, or intragonadal) (McEdward and Janies, 1993, 1997; Byrne, 1999; McEdward and Miner, 2001; Byrne et al., 2003).
After 8 weeks, brachiolaria
larvae with well-developed juvenile rudiments were induced to settle and metamorphose by addition of small cultured mussels (Mytilus edulis) and fresh pieces of macroalgae (Ulva spp.) to the jars (L.
hystera has a typical lecithotrophic brachiolaria
(Byrne et al., 2003a).
pentagona is a dioecious free-spawner with a planktonic lecithotrophic brachiolaria
But Bosch (1992) and Jaeckle (1994) showed that larval cloning is not taxonomically restricted when they reported larval cloning in brachiolaria
larvae, which are common to all asteroid orders except the Paxillosida (to which Luidia belongs).
Bipinnaria and brachiolaria
larvae of the asteroids Luidia foliolata and Pisaster ochraceus were surgically bisected into anterior and posterior portions, and the regeneration process was followed for 2 weeks (Vickery and McClintock, 1998).