(2013) mentioned that, middle ear ossicles are visible as foci of mesenchymal condensation within the embryonic branchial arches
. Also in birds, the columellar anlage of Bubulicus ibis appeared as human stapedial anlage (Salah EL-Din and Dakrory, 2015).
The latest begins with the differentiation of the neural crest at the boundary between the ectoderm and the neuroectoderm in the neural tube, from which NCCs from the cephalic region delaminate and migrate ventromedially to populate the branchial arches
It includes a spectrum of malformations, primarily involving structures derived from the first and second branchial arches
. Facial asymmetry, mandibular hypoplasia, preauricular or facial skin multiple tags and/or pits, auricular anomalies (from anomalies in the size and shape of the external auricle to anotia) and hearing loss are the characteristic findings in patients with this syndrome.
The first and second branchial arches
and the first pouch contribute to the development of the middle ear.
Normally, the branchial arches
grow medially in a cephalad to caudal direction with the first arch closing initially, followed by the others subsequently.
A defective model of the chick thymus was created by administering RA, which disrupted the signalling molecular cascade involving endothelin-1, essential for normal development of branchial arches
.16 Using Image-J, a simple method was formulated to calculate the volumetric deficiency induced by RA.
Miyake & McEachran (1991) worked with the branchial arches
skeleton of batoids, including some Urotrygonids species.
An important step in approaching syndromes of the first and second branchial arches
is identification of defects, including cleft lip with or without cleft palate, micrognathia and atresia of the external auditory canal.
Sakamoto (1984) utilized data on the branchial apparatus in his phylogenetic studies of Pleuronectidae, exploiting seven characters: 5th ceratobranchials, the shape of the 1st epibranchial, teeth on the 3rd epibranchial, gill rakers on the upper limb of the branchial arch, spines on gill rakers, shape of gill rakers and bony plates on the branchial arches
It is a complex malformation of varying severity involving the structures arising from first and second branchial arches
, first pharyngeal pouch, first branchial cleft, and primordia of the temporal bone.
Goldenhar syndrome (GS) is a rare congenital malformation occurring due to defective development of first and second branchial arches
which was first described in 1952 by a Swiss ophthalmologist Maurice Goldenhar.
The malformation hypothesis argues that the lesion arises as undifferentiated mesenchymal cells at the line of fusion between the developing first and third branchial arches