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They possess five to eight branchiostegal rays, being gas-bladder and orbited-sphenoid bone absent.
Gill openings broad, gill membranes united to each other, but free from isthmus, with 10 branchiostegal rays in each side.
Three branchiostegal rays were present at 4.4 mm; by 6.8 mm, 6 rays were formed, and, by 7.7 mm, the full complement of 7 rays was present (Table 2).
Line of melanophores on isthmus, pigment present on branchiostegal membrane under operculum.
In opercular rotation, opercles are rotated outward and the branchial basket expands downward with separation of the branchiostegal rays; the body is tilted slightly head-downward with median fins rigidly fanned out (Figs.
The LDF is based on three morphometric and meristic characters: total branchiostegal ray count, principal anal ray count, and the ratio of upper jaw length to standard length.
Cervical spines corneous; branchiostegal areas of carapace smooth to slightly granular, dorsal surface with scattered punctations.
Members of clade A showed the greatest mean divergence (0.0108); taken as a natural group, they might be characterized morphologically by the presence of an epipod on third maxilliped, pleurobranchiae on fifth pereiopod, ventral and dorsal rostral teeth, as well as by the absence of branchiostegal, pterygostomian and parapenaeid spines, and transverse and longitudinal sutures on carapace.