The GSLT of thermodynamics has also been analyzed in case of Braneworld
[28,29] and generally Levelock gravity .
Secular increase of the astronomical unit and perihelion precessions as tests of the Dvali Gabadadze Porrati multidimensional braneworld
Cosmologists using a "braneworld
" model of the early universe called Dirac-Born-Infeld inflation said that a new satellite might be able to detect the shadow of extra dimensions in the cosmic microwave background, thus providing the first experimental evidence for string theory.
M-theory has inspired a flurry of creative "braneworld
" models that depict our universe as being "glued" to a 3-D brane embedded in higher-dimensional hyperspace.
Because only a graviton particle can exist inside the bulk in this model, the other particles of the standard model are in the braneworld
. Based on the number of branes available in this model, two Randall-Sundrum (RS) models (I) and (II) have been presented [8,9].
Calcagni, "de Sitter thermodynamics and the braneworld
," Journal of High Energy Physics, vol.
It led us to the conclusion that the universe could have emerged from the vacuum as a quantum bubble (or "braneworld
") of Planck mass and Planck radius that expanded (w.
The deep connection between the first law of thermodynamics and Friedmann equations has been investigated in gravity with Gauss-Bonnet term , Lovelock gravity theory , the braneworld
scenarios , rainbow gravity , and scalar-tensor gravity and f(R) gravity .
In modified theories, an additional entropy production term appeared in Clausius relation that corresponds to the nonequilibrium behavior of thermodynamics while no extra term appears in GB gravity, Lovelock gravity, and braneworld
Based on the braneworld
model, all the particle fields in the standard model are confined to a four-dimensional brane, while gravity is free to propagate in all dimension.
Hosseini, "Friedmann equations in braneworld
scenarios from emergence of cosmic space," Physics Letters B, vol.