Endotracheal aspirate (ETA) and Bronchoalveolar lavage
(BAL) samples were collected aseptically from patients on mechanical ventilation on day zero i.
(BAL): Bronchoscopy was done according to BTS guideline 2013 for diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy in adults.
Methods: Meso scale discovery system and commercial ELISA kits were used to measure the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1[sz]; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a); IL-6; and IL-17 and CC and CXC chemokines CCL2, CCL4, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL22, and CCL26 and CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 in bronchoalveolar lavage
fluid of asthmatics and controls.
Specimen collection of sputum is difficult for children to produce and bronchoalveolar lavage
is invasive and burdensome for children, particularly for those with wheezing and coughing symptoms.
The bronchoalveolar lavage
(BAL) fluid differential cell count was 77% neutrophils and 23% monocytes.
Caption: Cysts of Pneumocystis jirovecii in smear from bronchoalveolar lavage
Samples collected were sputum, bronchial wash, bronchoalveolar lavage
pleural fluid, and blood.
The clinical specimens investigated included respiratory tract secretions (sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage
(BAL), bronchial washing and tracheal aspirate), blood, urine, high vaginal swab (HVS), skin scrapings, and plastic devices (Foley's catheters tip, endotracheal tube tip, intravascular catheter tip and renal stent) samples.
All stains and cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage
were negative for fungal, acid-fast bacilli, and other bacterial infections.
Subsequently, we unexpectedly isolated MAC from bronchoalveolar lavage
but, because of the patient's improvement, MAC treatment was not initiated until repeated bronchoscopy showed a positive histology and culture.
However, since a negative result in this kind of analysis does not rule out TB, a sample of bronchoalveolar lavage
was analyzed according to the Ziehl-Neelsen (BAAR) protocol, with a positive result for M.
Therefore, several strategies such as clinical evaluation, respiratory function tests, exercise tests, imaging studies, bronchoalveolar lavage
(BAL), and certain serum markers are commonly utilized for the follow-up assessment of patients with CTD.