Increased dorsal spine number in threespine stickleback has been associated with avian predation (Reimchen, 1980; Reimchen and Nosil, 2002), whereas a decreased number of spines has been associated with Odonate naiad predation in both threespine stickleback (Reimchen and Nosil, 2002) and brook stickleback
(Culaea inconstant Reist, 1980).
Male mate choice based on female nuptial coloration in the brook stickleback
, Culaea inconstans (Kirtland).
(2) 272 0.844 0.644 (black and golden redhorse) Ictaluridae Ameurus melas (black bullhead) 1 0.003 0.005 Salmonidae Salmo trutta (brown trout) 4 0.012 0.059 Gasterosteidae Culaea inconstans 11 0.034 0.042 (brook stickleback
) Cottidae Cottus bairdii (mottled sculpin) 778 2.413 2.479 Centrarchidae Ambloplites rupestris 52 0.161 0.166 (rock bass) Lepomis spp.
Four species (redbelly dace, brook stickleback, fat-head minnow, and finescale dace) were predominant in all successional environments, so that variation in species composition among environments was due to the addition of less abundant species (Table 2).
Previous studies suggest the four predominant species occurring in ponds (redbelly dace, finescale dace, fathead minnows, and brook stickleback) are all tolerant of oxygen stress (Cooper and Washburn 1946, Gee et al.
Geographic variation in the brook stickleback
, Culaea inconstans, and notes on nomenclature and distribution.
A comparison of startle response in two morphs of the brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans): further evidence for a trade-off between defensive morphology and swimming ability.
Evidence for a tradeoff between defensive morphology and startle-response performance in the brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans).
The native range of the Brook Stickleback
, Culaea inconstans (Kirtland) includes most of the southern half of Canada and the northern part of the eastern United States, extending southward to the Great Lakes-Mississippi River basins to Colorado, Nebraska, Illinois, Ohio and Pennsylvania (Woodling, 1985; Lee and Gilbert, 1978; Page and Burr, 1981).
Several other species, including the brook stickleback
, pumpkinseed sunfish, creek chub, and yellow perch exhibited relatively low abundances in 1983-1987 but increased abundances in 1988-1992 [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 3 OMITTED].
The brook stickleback
Culaea inconstans is an intriguing species with which to begin building such a database because the specific designation "inconstans" means "changeable" in Latin; the term was initially chosen by Kirtland (1840) to reflect morphological variability in the frequency of dorsal spines (Nelson, 1969; reviewed in Mattern, 2006b).
Fish species with high loadings (absolute value greater than 0.30) include bigmouth shiner and plains killifish (Fundulus kansae) for the first axis; creek chub, longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) and white sucker for the second axis; brook stickleback
(Culea inconstans), central stoneroller (Campostoma anomalum), creek chub and plains killifish for the third axis; and fathead minnow, longnose dace and white sucker for the fourth axis (Table 2).