Attenuation of acute lung injury casused by hind-limb ischemia-reperfusion injury by butyrolactone
anti-inflammatory agent FL 1003.
According to PDEA spokesman Derrick Arnold Carreon, one chemical in particular-- gamma butyrolactone
(GBL), a usual component of industrial cleaners for semiconductors -- is being mixed with illegal drugs such as ecstasy.
Since PON1 has lactonase and esterase activities , we opted to analyze the catalytic activity of PON1 using two different substrates: paraoxon (an ester) and 5-thiobutyl butyrolactone
(TBBL; a synthetic lactone).
compound was detected only in landraces harvested in spring months (Aprilatica, Maggiaiola, and Giugnese).
PC1 also separated the wine from the nonextracted wine without pectase, based on alcohols (butanol and 3-methylthiopropanol), acids (isobutyric and butanoic acid), and esters (ethyl 3-hydroxybutyrate and butyrolactone
Two signals, at 8.20 and 6.64 ppm, correspond to a hydroxyl and a lactol hydrogen, respectively, indicating a butyrolactone
terreus produces many secondary metabolites which it attributed inhibitory efficiency and include Aspulvinone, Asterric Acid, Asterrriquinone, I Butyrolactone
, Citrinin, Emodin, Geodin, Itaconate, Lovastatin, Questrin and Terrecyclic Acid .
It is obtained through the process of condensation of gamma butyrolactone
Effect of cycloheximide, 6-DMAP, roscovitine and butyrolactone
I on resumption of meiosis in porcine oocytes.
The chemical, also known as gamma butyrolactone
or GBL, is legally available for use as a cleaning product but it is illegal to sell for ingestion.
Chemical Area percentage (%) product Pure tar Tar-solvent sample mixture 1 Acetic Acid 62.93 62.88 2 Phenol 9.61 12.8 3 2-propanone, 1-hydroxy 6.02 4.04 4 Furfural 3.64 -- 5 Butyrolactone
2.81 2.85 6 Methyl alcohol 1.44 1.04
Melting endotherm ([T.sub.m2]), 140.6 138.8 137.1 [[degrees]C] Cold crystallization peak 67.2 64.5 64.3 [[degrees]C] Glass transition temperature 4.3 7.0 2.5 [[degrees]C] Onset of decomposition ([T.sub.d]) ~240 ~280 ~285 [[degrees]C] 3-HV/PHA [mol-%] 10 10 11-12 4-HB/PHA [mol-%] -- -- 5 [M.sub.w] [kDa] 150 253 391 Polydispersity index 2.1 2.7 2.6 [P.sub.i] ([M.sub.w]/[M.sub.n]) PHBHV4HB from whey and [gamma]- PHBHV butyrolactone
from whey Maximum specific rates  (d)  (d) [[micro].sub.max] [l/h] 0.14 0.10 [[pi].sub.max,1] [g/gh]; early 0.23 0.15 prod.