It included dozens of FGAs belonging to 6 classes: phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, butyrophenones
, dibenzazepines, dihydroindolones, and dibenzodiazepines.
A range of medications can cause NMS, including phenothiazines, butyrophenones
, thioxanthenes, and benzamides as well at the newer atypical antipsychotics.
Some drugs, such as butyrophenones
and metoclopramide, primarily phenothiazines, used as premedication can cause extrapyramidal symptoms.
Nearly seven decades ago, phenothiazines and butyrophenones
were used to manage the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and they called typical antipsychotics (2).
Types of medications that have been used to treat nausea and vomiting are vitamins, antihistamines, anticholinergics, dopamine antagonists, phenothiazines, butyrophenones
, serotonin antagonists, and corticosteroids (King & Murphy, 2009; Meltzer, 2000; Niebyl, 2010).
(Haloperidol) are associated with less chances of significant increase in visceral obesity which may be an important factor for development of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome .
There are many drugs used for treatment of PONV like metoclopramide, domperidone, phenothiazines, butyrophenones
, anticholinergics and antihistamines.
The advent of antipsychotics such as the prototype phenothiazine (Thorazine) and butyrophenones
(Haloperidol) in the 1950s led to the discharging by the 1960s of more and more people with chronic mental illness into the community.
Prophylaxis and treatment of PONV has been attempted with various drugs over the years, which includes serotonin antagonists, anti-cholinergic, butyrophenones
, phenothiazines, steroids and anti-histamines.
Human studies have shown that the liver poisoned with Amantia phalloides, phenothiazines (antipsychotic drugs) and butyrophenones
(antipsychotic drugs), silymarin reduces the hepatic damage.
such as haloperidol do not show cataractous effect in long-term use.