Corynebacterium ulcerans, one of three species of Corynebacterium (in addition to C. diphtheriae
ATLANTA -- Seven cases of imported Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Minnesota highlight the importance of maintaining suspicion that cutaneous lesions in individuals with recent travel to endemic countries might be associated with C. diphtheriae
The well-known Corynebacterium species is C. diphtheriae
, which causes diphtheria.
Complete immunity (IgG [greater than or equal to]0.1 IU/ml) for C. diphtheriae
antitoxin was determined in 267 cases (47%).
Although the type, number and spacing's of the diphtheria vaccinations used, in Saudi and elsewhere, appear to confer incomplete protection on an individual basis, reduction in the general prevalence of infection with toxigenic C. diphtheriae
, to almost undetectable levels, has virtually eliminated diphtheria from those countries in which the vaccination of the entire population has been achieved (Schneerson et al., 1996).
Mass resurgence of diphtheria in countries of the former Soviet Union (4-6) and outbreaks in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in the 1990s (7) highlighted diphtheria's morbidity and mortality impact and the importance of continuous surveillance--including laboratory confirmation of toxigenic C. diphtheriae
, and vaccination activities that achieve high and homogenous coverage.
According to cultural characters, biochemical tests and Elek's toxigenicity test, these were C. diphtheriae
, biotype gravis.
The child is the first to die from the C. diphtheriae
strain in England and Wales since 1994.
infection was not clinically suspected in any of the patients; treating institutions detected the organism through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) testing ofwound-derived coryneform isolates.
More recently, core-genome phylogenetic analysis showed a high level of discrimination and was able to provide insight into C. diphtheriae
genomic diversity and identify factors contributing to virulence (5).
Biochemical identification revealed two species i.e., C. diphtheriae
is a well-recognized cause of chronic, nonhealing skin ulcers in the tropics (3,4).