tumour necrosis factor

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Noun1.tumour necrosis factor - a proinflammatory cytokine that is produced by white blood cells (monocytes and macrophages); has an antineoplastic effect but causes inflammation (as in rheumatoid arthritis)
cytokine - any of various protein molecules secreted by cells of the immune system that serve to regulate the immune system
References in periodicals archive ?
XHIGM is caused by defects in the CD40LG/TNFSF5 gene, encoding for CD40 ligand (CD40LG) (OMIM#300386), a molecule predominantly expressed by activated CD4+ T lymphocytes [1].
Genes that were most highly upregulated in DKO mice were CCl5 (by 5.19-fold), Cd40lg (by 2.54-fold), and Cxcl9 (by 5.89-fold).
Also, for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) [25], this SNP together with -3458A>G CD40LG polymorphism was associated with the risk of RA.
We measured blood levels of 10 cytokines including 6 pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1 (IL-1; gene name: IL1), interleukin-6 (IL-6; gene name: IL6), tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] (TNF-[alpha]; gene name: TNF), toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2; gene name: TLR2), CD40 ligand (CD40L; gene name: CD40LG), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1; gene name: ICAM1)], two procoagulant cytokines [tissue factor (F3; gene name: F3) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; gene name: SERPINE1)], and two vasoconstrictors [endothelin-1 (ET-1; gene name: EDN1) and angiotensin converting enzyme-1 (ACE-1; gene name: ACE)].
Our results revealed changes in the expression of several genes including Ccl12 (3.2 fold), Cd40lg (2.2 fold), Ccr2 (-7.7 fold), Il6ra (-2.2 fold) and Ltb (-3.7 fold) in macrophages grown under modeled microgravity (MMG) for 48 hours using high-aspect-ratio rotating-wall vessel bioreactor (HARV).