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IL-1[beta], IL-6, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC, CXCL1) were measured by ELISA (R&D Systems, Abingdon, UK) in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
These can include SCF, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin 1 (Ang1), IL-8, CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL10, and osteopontin (OP), which in addition to recruit mast cell progenitors are also able to induce their maturation and activation [65-69].
We chose IL-6 because it has been shown to be a good predictor of disease progression and mortality in humans [36, 37], CCL2 as the main chemokine responsible for inflammatory monocyte recruitment to inflamed tissues [38, 39] and CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL5 as the murine analogues of human IL-8 which control neutrophil migration to injury sites .
In a similar manner, SF-derived exosomes induced the release of several chemokines (CCL8, CCL15, CCL20, and CXCL1), while downregulating the production of others (CCL7 in particular; Figures 4(a) and 4(c)).
These cytokines include IL-1ra, IL-1[beta], IL-2, IL-2R[alpha], IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12 (p40), IL-12 (p70), IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17, IL-18, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL11, CCL27, CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL12, FGF, G-CSF, GM-CSF, HGF, IFN-[alpha]2, IFN-[gamma], LIF, [beta]-NGF, PDGF-BB, SCF, SCGF-[beta], TNF-[alpha], TRAIL, and VEGF.
In addition to MCP-1, IL-6 mRNA expression in the saline-pretreated group also increased significantly after ischemia and this elevation persisted along with a significant increase in the neutrophil chemoattractant, KC (CXCL1) seen at 24 h reperfusion (Figures 4(b) and 4(d)).
Similar to CCL20, CXCL1 has been reported to have direct antimicrobial activities, whereas CXCL8 exerts its full antimicrobial activities after proteolytic processing [23,24,26,27].
They discovered that curcumin reduces the expression of two pro-inflammatory proteins (cytokines CXCL1 and CXCL2) involved in prostate cancer, and in the mice curcumin caused a reduction in the incidence of metastases.
Syndecan-1 acts as an important regulator of CXCL1 expression and cellular interaction of human endometrial stromal and trophoblast cells.
demonstrated simultaneously increased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-6, TNF, IL-1[beta], KC (CXCL1), MIP-2, MCP-1, and eotaxin) and anti-inflammatory (TNF soluble receptors, IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist) cytokines in mice dying from cecal ligation and puncture (days 1-5).
High V[sub]T ventilation increases interleukin (IL)-1[sz], IL-6, IL-8, tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-a, C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1) and CXCL10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, and intercellular cell adhesion molecule levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in mice with a significant increase in pulmonary vascular permeability.,,,, Among these, the levels of IL-6 and IL-1[sz] in the lung and BALF of IKK[sz]?mye mice were also found to cause nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation in ventilator-induced IL-6 and IL-1[sz] production.
(64) and CSF CXCL1, CXCL8, CXCL10, CXCL13, CCL20, CCL22, NfL, NfH, GFAP, chitinase-3-like-1 MMP-9, osteopontin levels in RIS and RRMS cases Petzold (65) Relationship between CSF NfH values and clinical EDSS Petzold et al.
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- Cx59 connexin 59
- CXC chemokine BLC
- CXC chemokine in breast and kidney
- CXC chemokine ligand 16
- CXC chemokine ligand 7