It is a distinct model from the Caesaropapism
model, in which the two political and spiritual authorities are united according to the formula in which the church is subordinate to the state, but also from the opposite model, the theocratic model, in which political power is subordinate to religious authority (Gentile 2017, 22).
But the king's panel also makes the earliest and most explicit visual statement of two fundamental claims of the Norman monarchy, constantly thereafter repeated in the art and architecture of the kingdom: christomemesis, the idea that the earthly king imitates the king of heaven; and caesaropapism
, the assertion that the king possessed supreme authority over both church and state, without the intervention of the Pope of Rome.
Later, during the Enlightenment, as the West moved to exclude religion from politics, the Byzantines were held up as the prime example of "caesaropapism
" under the mistaken belief that the Byzantine emperor ruled as both king and pope, with no separation of church and state.
This is perfectly understandable in a country which has no epic historical experience with caesaropapism
, reformation, counter-reformation, revolutions and indigenously thought out political systems like in Europe and where religion is embedded in its mainstream culture as an inadequate natural-given that discourages dissent and tough questioning in the matters of belief from above.
Erastianism is a historical term often used imprecisely as a virtual synonym with Max Weber's caesaropapism
, that is, a more or less absolute dominance of the civil authority exercised over spiritual matters and ministry.
This time also initiated Caesaropapism
: the emperor's becoming head of the Christian commonwealth precipitated a massive retrieval, refurbishing, and renewal.
The book is divided into six parts, five of which address the issues of how both men and women can be considered created in the image and likeness of God; how divine justice, grace, and human freedom can be reconciled; how the See of Rome became the doctrinal center of the Catholicism; how the Church navigated between the extremes of 'Caesaropapism
' (absorption of the church by the state) and theocracy (absorption of the state by the church); and how the it should approach modern and post-modern culture today.