The humus cover types of cropland are derived from both soil cover properties (moisture conditions, calcareousness
and soil-forming factors) and management techniques (including the intensity of cultivation, drainage and liming).
Many chemical and biological processes of soil include acidification, calcareousness
, salinization, nutrient availability and toxicity, and cycling and microbial activity is controlled by soil pH .
While different scientists reported that the calcareousness
of soils (like Pakistan) reduces Zn phytoavailability (Alloway, 2009; Hussain et al., 2011).
The low contents of organic matter may be due to the calcareousness
nature of the soil.
Degree of base saturation is equal to 94-98%, which results from high content of humus, enrichment with montmorillonite minerals and calcareousness
of parent rock material.
The soil reaction; calcareousness
and salinity were determined by the established methods (Page et al.1982; FAO 1974).
The presentations encompassed a wide range of land uses (arable, grasslands, and forest), soil types (from mineral to organic soils), soil properties (texture, moisture conditions, acidity, calcareousness
), and biochemical processes and substances studied under pedo-climatic conditions of Northern and Central Europe.
Soil and fertility: Several soil conditions and farming practices in Pakistan are perceived as being likely to induce micronutrient deficiencies, including high soil pH, calcareousness
of soils, low soil organic matter and the use of fertilizers poor in micronutrients.
Quarry spoil, as fresh calcareous parent material for soil development, had the highest pH value, in the other soils pH decreased according to soil development and decreasing of parent material calcareousness
from North- to South-Estonia.
Soil constraints like alkalinity (pH>7.0), calcareousness
, excess of carbonate and bicarbonate ions, ionic imbalances and soil pollution further aggravated deficiency of iron in the soil (Nayyar et al., 2001; Mirzapour and Khoshgoftarmaneh, 2013; Ryan et al., 2013).
The parent material variability (or geodiversity) may be caused by soil texture variations (from sand to clay), mineralogical and chemical composition, calcareousness
ERB amphi terrohumus forms are approximately equal to Estonian moder-mull types (mainly in their calcareousness