The task of clarifying the issues surrounding deaconesses and ordination was in large part accomplished by canonists
during the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries.
His 1965 book, Contraception: A History of its Treatment by the Catholic Theologians and Canonists
, has been cited by church observers as a factor in Blessed Paul VI's decision to appoint a commission to study the issue.
The culmination was the commission of theologians and canonists
convened in 1320 by Pope John XXII to develop a systematic demonology, a theology of Satan, and a precise meaning of heresy.
In the past, canonists
were those people who aimed to overthrow administrators, but, there is also a civilian version of this.
, basing their arguments on the "equality of souls in the eyes of God," advanced the notion that there is a moral law (natural law) superior to all human law.
Arrangement is in three parts concerning William Durant the Younger (1266-1330), and Hermann Conring (1606-81); the third part is titled "Come and Gone: Past Sense" and presents articles on visions of order in the canonists
and civilians, sovereignty and heresy, empire the modern way, The Limits of History, religious authority and eclesiastical governance, and Hegel's ghost--Europe, the Reformation, and the Middle Ages.
The chapters of the book include considerations of Old Testament law from the perspective of the New Testament and the rise of postapostolic authority in the early office of the bishop; the classical foundations of law and polity in ancient Greece and Rome; early Christian proto-canonical collections; the canonical Epistles of the twelve Eastern Fathers; Tertullian and Lactantius; Augustine; the development of the Eastern Church's synodal process; the canons of the Seven Ecumenical Councils; later Byzantine codifications of Roman imperial law; and the work of late Byzantine canonists
It also takes in the role of professional university canonists
and civilians from Bologna, especially Gratian, in the clarification of jurisprudence, whose analysis, Wolfgang Muller argues, transformed pre- twelfth-century 'vaguely perceived notions of right and wrong' (p.
That examination would enlist not only bishops, theologians, and canonists
but also political scientists, sociologists, psychologists, historians, and experts in new communication technologies and interacting cultures.
Based on the Roman law concept of marital affection, it was developed by canonists
throughout the middle ages.
came to distinguish five types of illegitimates, subject to differing degrees of disability and with differing prospects for legitimation, and considerable portions of canon law found their way into Continental law codes during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Moralists debated whether the requirements of a "direct abortion" had been met, while canonists
questioned the penalty, noting the required lack of malicious intent to violate the law.