These algae also contain some minor carotenoids among which canthaxanthin
and astaxanthin, both with ketonic groups; stand out (Whittle and Casselton, 1975; Karlson et al.
Both synthetically produced pigments, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin
, either alone or in combination, have been efficiently used as dietary additives for muscle pigmentation in salmonids.
Effect of [beta]-Carotene, Canthaxanthin
, Lutein, and Vitamin E on Neonatal Immunity of Chicks When Supplemented in the Broiler Breeder Diets.
Carotenoids Market by Type (Astaxanthin, Beta-Carotene, Canthaxanthin
, Lutein, Lycopene, & Zeaxanthin), Source (Synthetic and Natural), Application (Supplements, Food, Feed, and Cosmetics), & by Region - Global Trends & Forecasts to 2021
Merely three cetrarioid lichens have been investigated for their carotenoid composition: [beta]-carotene 32, zeaxanthin 34, lutein 35, mutatoxanthin 39, [beta]-cryptoxanthin 41, lutein epoxide 42, antheraxanthin 43 and 3'-epilutein 44 in Cetrariella delisei; [alpha]-carotene 31, [beta]-carotene 32, [epsilon]-carotene 33, zeaxanthin 34, lutein 35, violaxanthin 36, lutein epoxide 42 and antheraxanthin 43 in Flavocetraria nivalis, and [beta]-carotene 32, zeaxanthin 34, lutein 35, astaxanthin 37, canthaxanthin
38, luteoxanthin 40, [beta]-cryptoxanthin 41 and lutein epoxide 42 in Cetraria islandica.
Pigmentation of rainbow trout with the individual optical isomers of astaxanthin in comparison with canthaxanthin
It is known that this ingredient is rich in pigmenting agents, like xanthophyll and canthaxanthin
, with direct influence on the color of the yolk.
Protection of vitamin E, selenium, Trolox C, ascorbic acid palmitate, acetylcysteine, coenzyme Q-0, coenzyme Q-10, beta carotene, canthaxanthin
, and (1)- catechin against oxidative damage to rat blood and tissues in vivo.
2003) reported high levels of P-carotene and xanthophylls, including canthaxanthin
and astaxanthin, in Schizochytrium; and Kotrbacek et al.
The results of Yesilayer et al (16) were similar, where young goldfish were fed five different diets: astaxanthin, canthaxanthin
, Gammarus spp.
Carotenoids: CaroCare[R] Natural Beta Carotene, Beta-Carotene, redivivo[R], Lycopene, FloraGLO[R] Lutein, Optisharp[R] Zeaxanthin, AstaSanarm astaxanthin, Apocarotenal, Canthaxanthin
36,41,42) With birds, it would be highly interesting to verify whether the dietary supplementation of certain species held in captivity, such as flamingos (Phoenicopterus species) or the scarlet ibis (Eudocimus rubber), with synthetic carotenoids such as canthaxanthin
, would produce artifacts with CZE.