group of antibiotics is one of the most effective drugs that has been used as a last remedy for the treatment of infections caused by Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) Gram negative bacilli.1 To neutralize the drugs, such NDM-1 producing bacteria encode various carbapenemases which are [beta]-lactamases, having the ability to hydrolyze majority of [beta]-lactams including carbapenems
.2 Irrational use of antimicrobials give birth to resistance by increasing selective pressure in the bacterial population.
Penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems
can all be hydrolyzed by many members of the [beta]-lactamase family of enzymes, which turn out into microbiologically toothless compounds.
are strong antibiotics that are commonly used to treat serious infections.
coli which was the most common isolate were mainly sensitive to carbapenems
, colistin and Polymyxin-b, all showing 100% sensitivity followed by ofloxacin, Piperacillin-tazobactam, Aminoglycosides, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamycin and Tobramycin all of them having the same sensitivity of 57.1%.
The rapid spread of blaNDM-1 and other MDR genes across the world is a growing concern because they often target "last resort" classes of antibiotics, including Carbapenems
But it can be cured with azithromycin and carbapenems
are a class of highly effective antibiotic agents commonly used for the treatment of severe or high-risk bacterial infections.
(1) Therapeutic options against these infections are limited; "second line" agents include colistin, tigecycline, aminoglycosides, and carbapenems
. (2) The best available treatment against CRKP infections is still under study owing to different chemore-sistance mechanisms and limited effectiveness.
Metallo-plactamases (MBLs) are carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes that have the exceptional ability to hydrolyze the carbapenems
including imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem (3,4,5,6).
Avibactam has much broader coverage than clavulanic acid against beta lactamase enzymes that bacteria make to defend themselves against antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems
Experiments on people with pneumonia and those with infections that are resistant to some of our most powerful drugs, carbapenems
, are already under way.
, which were developed in the 1980s, are a [beta]-lactam group of drugs that are considered as last resort antibiotics for treating serious infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB).