has two effects: it increases mechanical strength of concrete, but it also decreases alkalinity, which creates favorable conditions for fungi growth leading to the loss of calcium in concrete (Figure 5).
Sugar scum is derived from the sugar-refining process through juice carbonatation
. It is separated from the sugary juices using filtration and contains primarily precipitated calcium carbonate as well as minerals and organic materials removed in juice purification .
One variation of this process was that wood particles can also be immersed into calcium hydroxide solution for 1 hour, but, subsequently should be airdried, without being washed, to promote the particles carbonatation
. The carbonatation
is the reaction between Ca [(OH).sub.2] and C[O.sub.2] present at the atmosphere that results in CaC[O.sub.3] compound.
Quaresima, "The nanolimes in Cultural Heritage conservation: characterisation and analysis of the carbonatation
process," Journal of Cultural Heritage, vol.
Arab et al., "Carbonatation
and decarbonatation kinetics in the [La.sub.2][O.sub.3]-[La.sub.2][O.sub.2]C[O.sub.3] system under C[O.sub.2] gas flows," Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol.
Carbonated drinks have also a component of sour taste (due to carbonic acid generation during carbonatation
These porous PIL networks exhibited significantly enhanced catalytic activity for organocatalyzed carbonatation
Other authors report that the removal of anthocyanins from sugar juice occurs by precipitation, which results from the excess calcium used during the carbonatation
process (ARAUJO, 2007; CASTRO; ANDRADE, 2007).
Taglieri, "Nanolime suspensions applied on natural lithotypes: the influence of concentration and residual water content on carbonatation
process and on treatment effectiveness," Journal of Cultural Heritage, vol.
Large variations in temperature and humidity combined with salty sea air and a chemical reaction known as "carbonatation
" within the concrete itself can cause cracks, exposing the reinforcing steel inside the columns that will then rust and degrade, said the expert.