Two pivotal adaptations related to maintaining intracellular pH homeostasis in an acidic environment, have recently received significant attention: (1) the presence of chronic autophagy in tumors and (2) the overexpression of carbonic anhydrases
(CAs), mainly CA IX and CA XII.
The carbonic anhydrases
(CA), members of the zinc metalloprotein family, are enzymes which catalyze the interconversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and hydrogen ions.
In recent studies [8-12], the kinetic parameters and inhibition mechanisms of enzymes human carbonic anhydrases
and catalase in the presence of some boron-containing anions were investigated, among them [K.sub.2][[B.sub.3][O.sub.3][F.sub.4]OH], too.
Hydroides elegans carbonic anhydrases
1 and 2 (HeCAl and HeCA2, respectively) were 2 of 12 HeCA genes identified from recovered contigs in the transcriptomes.
1994), glucocorticoids are able to accelerate the enzymatic activity of carbonic anhydrases
(Donn et al.
Down-regulation of transmembrane carbonic anhydrases
in renal cell carcinoma cell lines by wild-type von Hippel-Lindau transgenes.
The proteins, enzymes called carbonic anhydrases
, split CO2 into bicarbonate and protons.
Diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications of carbonic anhydrases
Biology and chemistry of the carbonic anhydrases
. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1984;429:1-640.
Discovery of Carbonic Anhydrases
. In the 1920s, two theories were proposed concerning the transport of C[O.sub.2] in the blood.
are upstream regulators of CO[sub.2]-controlled stomatal movements in guard cells.
Dutcher, Role of carbonic anhydrases
in the progression of renal cell carcinoma subtypes: proposal of a unified hypothesis, Cancer Invest.