The vowel is usually around cardinal vowel
two, but may also be slightly more open.
For the sound stimuli, cardinal vowels
were taken from an Interactive CD containing a clickable cardinal vowel
chart created by the Department of Phonetics and Linguistics at University College London.
For example, in the discussion of the cardinal vowels
, it was noted that the cardinal vowel
[i] actually represents a range of sounds that are high front sounds.
If this vowel was about as high as cardinal vowel
2, the change from /i/ to /e:/ would involve both a lengthening and a fronting process; if, however, /i/ was higher than cardinal vowel
2, the change from /i/ to /e:/ would involve both a lengthening and a lowering process.
In most languages, the vowels employing cardinal vowel
symbols ([i], [e], [u], [[??]], [a], etc.) are usually centralized to a degree from the "extreme" cardinal positions.
The vowel /el is below the cardinal vowel
2 and / l is above the cardinal vowel
Like English, the quality of most vowels simply do not line up with Jones's cardinal vowel
positions, even though one is obliged to choose the one deemed to be the closest symbol.
Following this tradition, the vowels of Hindko are described below with reference to Cardinal vowel
system, which is first discussed below.
It will also be noticed that vowels with the same symbol are not necessarily articulated in exactly the same location between F and E, and rarely occupy the extreme cardinal vowel
[i] is a fully close central unrounded vowel, midway between cardinal vowels
1 [i] and 8 [u].
He says that the idea of the Cardinal Vowels
by Daniel Jones is based on the concept that the vowels are limited by vowel space.