Safflower, a multipurpose crop has been grown for the orange red dye (carthamin
) extracted from it is brilliant coloured flowers and for its quality oil (30%) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids Linoleic acid, 78 per cent (Nimbkar, 2002).
Enzymatic conversion of precarthamin to carthamin
by a purified enzyme from the yellow petals of safflower.
Its flowers have a red colorant called carthamin
, widely used for dyeing fabrics, and the yellow colorant is very used for cooking (Table 1).
From its florets two dyes differing in color and solubility (carthamidin which is water soluble and yellow in color while carthamin
is alkali soluble and red in color) can be obtained (Dajue and Mundel 1996).
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has been grown since ancient times (4500 BC) in Egypt, Morocco, China and India to obtain carthamin
from the flowers, a dye that may be either yellow or red.
Chapter Titles: Overview; Measurement of Color; Interpretation of Data; Regulation of Colorants; FD&C Colorants; Carotenoids; Anthocyanins and Betalains; Chlorophylls, Haems, Phycobilins, and Anthraquinones; Turmeric, Carthamin
, and Monascus; Caramel, Brown Polyphenols, and Iridoids; Miscellaneous Colorants; Baked Goods, Cereals, and Pet Foods; Beverages and Dairy Products; Confections; Special Topics; Future Prospects
In Egypt, the Middle East, and India, the dried flowers were used to obtain carthamin
, a red textile dye and food coloring agent.
Moreover, a number of components in FC extract have been isolated, such as safflor yellow and carthamin
Traditionally, the crop was grown for its seeds, and used for colouring and flavouring foods, in medicines, and making red (carthamin
) and yellow dyes, especially before cheaper aniline dyes became available.
CF is composed of various chemical constituents including carthamin
(red pigment), hydroxysafflor yellow A, Safflor yellow B and tinctormine (Kazuma et al.
Safflower has a long history of cultivation as an oilseed crop and as a source of red dye (carthamin
Safflower petals contain water soluble dye, carthamidin and alkali soluble, carthamin
pigments in different proportions depending on the colour of flower.