Because of difficulties inherent in observational studies, it may be impossible to demonstrate environmental and/or population equivalence to a sufficient degree, and therefore additional evidence and considerations are necessary to support the notion of a causal relation
between agent A and the target disease.
They found that "the results do not support a causal relation
between environmental tobacco smoke and tobacco related mortality, although they do not rule out a small effect".
Notwithstanding the fact that this environment is inhospitable to tigers, that there is no demonstrated causal relation
between my (delusional) behaviors and the absence of tigers, I still believe my program has been effective.
1) there must be a causal relation
or connection between the injury and the use of the insured vehicle; (2) the person asserting coverage must be in reasonably close geographic proximity to the insured vehicle, although the person need not be actually touching it; (3) the person must be vehicle oriented rather than highway or sidewalk oriented at the time; and (4) the person must also be engaged in a transaction essential to the sue of the vehicle at the time.
That he labels as false the theory that there is a causal relation
between Islam, monolithically assumed, and science, largely ill-defined, gives us good reason to believe that error in scope or methodology of the question is what Gutas wishes to highlight.
As Judith Reisman, president of Washington's Institute for Media Education, has asked: ``Can there be a causal relation
to the many sex and sadism messages to the fact that 58,200 children were kidnapped in one year from yards, parks and streets, most to be sexually assaulted?
Any causal relation
between long-term oral contraception and cervical cancer would be most important in the developing world, where cervical cancer is common and few women have access to high-quality cytological screening.
If necessity and sufficiency conditions (of cause and effect) cannot be met, van den Broek suggests that we search memory for missing information that will enable us to reinstate a causal relation
and make a bridging inference.
A causal relation
between kava consumption and fulminant liver failure was suggested because of chronology, histologic findings, and exclusion of other causes including hepatitis A, B, C, and E, as well as HIV, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus (BMJ 322:139, 2001).
The research team, led by gynaecologist Gordon Smith, concluded: "Our findings suggest a causal relation
between second teenage birth and adverse pregnancy outcome.
The specific claims are that (a) there are three cognitive domains -- the content domain, the epistemic domain, and the speech-act domain; (b) in the content domain there is a causal relation
between the events and situations described by the antecedent and consequent of a conditional; (c) in the epistemic domain there is an inferential relation between what is assumed in the antecedent of a conditional and what is concluded in its consequent; (d) in the speech-act domain there is an "appropriacy" relation between the antecedent and consequent.
Oscillation of a few degrees measures the stretch of rubber of a percent or so, which has no causal relation
to the stretch in a rubber processing machine.