1) Casuarina glauca Sieber ex Spreng Hammerton, 2001 Cenchrus
Chrysopogon aucheri, Cenchrus
ciliaris and Eragrotis papposa had high frequencies of >50%.
The herbaceous layer is marked by grass species such as Cenchrus
biflorus, Schoenfeldia gracilis, Eragrostis tremula and Dactyloctenium aegyptium.
Grasses: Chrysopogon monatus, Chrysopogon aucheri, Themeda anathera, Bothriothloa pertusa, Aristida mutabilis, Cenchrus
ciliaris, Digitaria nodos, Desmostachya bipinnata, Imperarta cylindrical, Eleusine compressa, Cynodon dactylon, Panicum antidorale, Pennisetum orientate, Polvpogon monspeliensis, Cymobopogon jawarancusa, Eulatiopsis binata Desert Trees/Shrubs: Araria jacquemontii, Aracia rangelands nilotica, Acacia Senegal, Calligonum polygonoides, Euphorbia cadurifolia.
In addition to Pennisetum, modern reference specimens of related genera (including domesticated and wild species), such as Brachiaria, Digitaria, Echinochloa, Panicum, Paspalum, Setaria and Sorghum as well as Cenchrus
were examined for comparison, with special emphasis on species used in ancient and recent times by peoples of the Sahara and adjacent regions (Harlan 1989; Wasylikowa 1997; Barakat & Fahmy 1999).
Increaser species included natives and exotics, with buffel grass, Cenchrus
ciliaris, a prominent exotic increaser at one gradient.
MacKay DC, Russell JS (1975) Rates of growth, potassium uptake, and changes in the potassium properties of four Queensland soils during intensive cropping by buffel grass, Cenchrus
The weeds, Bidens pilosa, Eleusine indica and Cenchrus
echinatus, anticipated the reproductive stadium when grown in fumigated soil.
2006); (4) panicles with bristles of similar or different lengths (Doust & Kellogg, 2002); (5) panicles with primary branches with short internodes, with the resulting appearance of a central axis surrounded by concentric rings of bristles (Penisetum and Cenchrus
, Doust & Kellogg, 2002) (6) short or long inflorescence peduncle.