(7) demonstrated that microinjections of VUF-8430 in the cerebellar vermis
of mice impaired memory consolidation in two models of learning and emotional memory: the elevated plus maze (EPM), which is a model for assessing anxiety, and the IAT.
Unenhanced MRI showed, extraventricular communicating hydrocephalus; hypoplasia of inferior cerebellar vermis
, dilatation of fourth ventricle with enlarged posterior fossa, multiple cysts in the posterior fossa indicating a Dandy-Walker variant.
Diffuse cortical hyperintensity was observed in the cerebellar vermis
, bilateral parietooccipital, frontal and temporal regions on FLAIR-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Figure 1).
Dandy-Walker Syndrome is characterized by cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, by aplasia, either total or partial hypotrophy of cerebellar vermis
, and it is a non-familial syndrome in which cerebral malformations with corpus callosum agenesis, heteropsias, lissenphaly, and stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius may occur.
Magnetic resonance images showed increased signal in cerebellar vermis
, facial nerves, cortical sulci, and radicular regions (Figure, panel C).
MRI, performed on day two of life, was consistent with partial vermian agenesis and showed hypogenesis of inferior cerebellar vermis
with mild fourth ventricular enlargement which communicated with a retrocerebellar cerebrospinal fluid collection (Figure 1(b)).
Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM), a congenital anomaly of the posterior cranial fossa, characterized by the triad of cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, enlarged posterior fossa, and complete or partial agenesis or absence of the cerebellar vermis
and hydrocephalus (1,2).
Magnetic resonance imaging discovered a shortage of cavum septum pellucidum, interlinked bilateral lateral ventricles of the brain, posterior horn of the left and right ventricles were 9.5 mm/9.3 mm, small cerebellar volume, normal cerebellar vermis
, unclear commissura optica, and small right eyeball.
Although it is known with the classical triad of hypoplasia of cerebellar vermis
, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle and hydrocephalus, different definitions were also suggested as a result of studies till date (6) (Table 1).
[1,2] JS is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by molar tooth malformation, a complex brainstem malformation that reflects aplasia and marked hypoplasia of cerebellar vermis
, thickened and elongated superior cerebellar peduncles, and deepened interpeduncular fossa that is apparent on axial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the midbrain-hindbrain junction.
Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) is a posterior fossa anomaly characterized by hypoplasia and upward rotation of the cerebellar vermis
and cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle.
As for regional brain metabolic changes after the SMT intervention, activation (increased metabolism) was detected in the dACC (Brodmann area [BA] 32), cerebellar vermis
(CV), and somatosensory association cortex, and regional deactivation (decreased metabolism) was detected in regions including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and temporal sites.