(39) This abandonment came on the heels of Philip's capture and enslavement of Chalcidice
in 349 and Olynthus in mid348 BCE, which became a turning point in Philip's war on Athens.
Although Pericles's strategy essentially remained in play throughout the first decade of the war, there were departures from it as the war expanded into new areas such as Sicily and the Chalcidice
As part of the offensive into Greece, Persian engineers even completed the remarkable engineering feats of bridging the Dardanelles and digging a canal across the Acte peninsula in the Chalcidice
. Today, the Persians would be considered a joint and combined force--that is, different armed services acting in a coordinated way, supplied from a proficient logistical system, utilizing intelligence, working closely with the forces of allied states--executing a strategy to conquer Greece.
The umbra of the moon crossed from the western Atlantic Ocean to the northwestern coast of Morocco, the northern edge of modern Algeria, the southeastern Mediterranean brushing the southern tip of Sardinia and the northwest tip of Sicily, across the Tyrrhenian Sea, across Lucania and ancient Calabria in southern Italy, the Straits of Otranto, over Epirus, Thessaly and Chalcidice
, the northern Aegean, and headed eastward across northern Anatolia.
Peisthetaerus' orders at 837 have a Spartan flavour to them: the person to whom they are addressed(98) is told to [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (`lend a hand'), but in the manner of a Spartan servant.(99) The rest of the passage is curiously reminiscent of what we know of Brasidas, perhaps the best known of all Spartan ephors, during his campaigns in Chalcidice
. Aristophanes uses allusions to his exploits to adorn the passage where Peisthetaerus/Alcibiades begins seriously to throw his weight about.
A general (strategos) and statesman of the Achaean League, he led a revolt against the Romans (146); persuaded Corinth to ignore envoys from Rome, and incited the Achaean League to revolt against Rome, which was busy with the last stages of the Third Punic War; assembled a large army, made alliances with Thebes (Thivai) and Chalcidice
(Khalkidhiki), and attacked Sparta (a Roman ally) by besieging Heraclea in Elis; driven off by a Roman army under Lucius Mummius, he was decisively defeated at Scarphe (near Corinth) (146); disappeared afterward, and presumably killed.
As the play begins, she lies exhausted in front of her tent in Chalcidice
, where the Greek expedition has taken her.