An especially strong warning was released in 1976 by one of the field's pioneers, biochemist Erwin Chargaff
. In an essay published in the journal Science, "On the Dangers of Genetic Meddling," he said: "You can stop splitting the atom; you can stop visiting the moon; you can stop using aerosols ...
La determinacion de que las cantidades de adenina y timina y las de citosina y guanina son las mismas, es un gran aporte que hace Erwin Chargaff
en 1950 y que, posteriormente, se constituyo en la "Regla de Chargaff
Some scientists, including biochemist Erwin Chargaff
, warned against regulation by NIH (Chargaff
Phoebus Levene and Erwin Chargaff
research uncovered the primary
As a case in point, although the discovered AT-GC coding now seems an obvious deduction from Chargaff
's Rules, the significance of those very rules was not fully appreciated until after the code had been established by tinkering around with cardboard molecular models of the four nucleic acids.
Since "Czernowitz" is the German language version of Chernivtsi, for many a myth will come to mind, a myth that has to do with the poets Paul Celan and Rose Auslander, with numerous newspapers in the city's languages of Yiddish, Romanian, Ukrainian, Polish, and German, with the place of Erwin Chargaff
, Joseph Schumpeter, Nathan Birnbaum, Itzig Manger, Eliezar Shteinbarg, Shlomo Bickel, Mihai Eminescu, Joseph Schmidt, Karl Emil Franzos, Zhu Bailan, Aharon Appelfeld, and many others, with the Yiddish Language Conference in 1908, with the Chassidic rabbi dynasty of Sadagora, the numerous "Kaffehauser," a multicultural scenery, and much more.
Israel Rosenfeld's DNA: A Graphic Guide to the Molecule That Shook the World (Columbia, February) is one such effort, rendering into cartoon form not just Watson and Crick's famed description of DNA's double helix structure, but lesser-known contributions leading up to that discovery, like "Chargaff
's Rules," the observation of a Czernowitz-born Jewish biochemist that DNA always contains equal amounts of adenine and thymine, of guanine and cytosine.
They also knew of Chargaff
's experiments to show that the amount of guanine in an organism was always the same as the amount of cytosine, and the amount of adenine was equal to the amount of thymine.
, a world-renowned bio-chemist, mused: The great pendulum of birth and death; the darkness and mystery of human destinies; the great concepts that for many thousands of years spoke to the mind and even more to the heart of humanity--reconciliation and charity, redemption and salvation--have they all been pushed aside and annihilated by science?
(15,16) The structure of DNA was deduced through a combination of model-building, Chargaff
's rules and X-ray diffraction data.
) and at Hawaii University, in molecular biology at the California Institute of Technology (with R.
showed that no one building block outnumbered any other.