Percutaneous access has been indicated in procedures like Nephrostomy catheter drainage, Antegrade ureteral stenting, Treatment of ureteral strictures, Percutaneous endopyelotomy, Percutaneous endopyeloplasty, Percutaneous nephrolithotomy, Miniature percutaneous nephrolithotomy (Mini-Perc), Tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy, Perfusion chemolysis
to dissolve and clear certain renal stones and Endoscopic resection and treatment of upper urinary tract urothelial tumors.
2) Percutaneous chemolysis
has also demonstrated good outcomes with low complication and high stone-free rates.
The cited reasons for placement of a nephrostomy tube include aiding haemostasis, decreasing urinary leakage, promoting healing, providing reliable drainage and providing access for further endoscopic procedure or chemolysis
(dissolution) of existing stones may be possible with uric acid and some cystine stones.
For stents with a high stone burden, the use of a combination of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, electrohydraulic lithotripsy, laser lithotripsy and percutaneous chemolysis
may be necessary, with clearance rates of up to 100% being achieved.
In those patients other endourological procedures with or without chemolysis
should be considered.
Papers will demonstrate the use of recycled materials in coatings and flexible foam applications from a variety of recycle methods, including mechanical pulverization and chemolysis