These cells, known as chondrocytes
, are returned into the patient's defect area in a second surgical procedure.
These adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes
are distinct from another production line in the bone marrow--the hematopoietic system--that makes red blood cells, blood-clotting cells and cells of the immune system.
The Authors would like to correct Figure 6 and Figure 8 that were published incorrectly in the article "Effect of JJYMD-C, a novel synthetic derivative of gallic acid, on proliferation and phenotype maintenance in rabbit articular chondrocytes
in vitro" in volume 47 no.
Articular cartilage is composed of chondrocytes
embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM) formed mainly by type II collagen and proteoglycan aggrecan molecules, which they synthesize and degrade.
On the basis of morphology of chondrocytes
and matrix, articular cartilage structure can be divided into three zones; superficial (tangential), middle (transitional) and deep zone.
Hyaline cartilage, such as that found in the nose, microscopically consists of chondrocytes
. Derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), chondrocytes
are responsible for producing the extracellular matrix that mainly consists of Type II collagen and proteoglycans.
Linear growth or longitudinal growth achieved in human life, is determined by a process of differentiation, proliferation and maturation of the chondrocytes
in the growth plate.
A smooth connective tissue that protects the joints, cartilage is produced by cells called chondrocytes
but is not easily replaced once it is damaged.
Mechanical stimulation has been shown to have a strong influence on chondrocyte
biosynthetic activity. Furthermore, multiple studies have suggested a regulatory role for intracellular Ca2+ in endochondral ossification, a process that includes chondrocyte
proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Based on the above findings, we hypothesized that mechanical stress alone or in combination with the voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel inhibitor verapamil would stimulate chondrocytes
with respect to AGC biosynthesis.
14/782,070 related to methods of producing pluripotent stem cell-derived chondrocytes
lineage cells, cartilage-like tissue and cartilage.
The severity of the osteoarthritic lesions was graded on a scale of 0-14 by three independent observers using the Mankin scoring system as follows: Mankin score 0, normal cartilage with a smooth surface and a regular zonal distribution of chondrocytes
; Mankin score 1-4, cartilage surface shows fibrillations and a superficial loss of proteoglycans, but the zonal structure is intact; Mankin score 5-8, cartilage samples have clefts reaching down to the middle cartilage zone, and clusters of proliferating chondrocytes
are present; and Mankin score [greater than or equal to] 9, severely affected cartilage samples with clefts reaching down to the deep zone, in which the tangential zone is lost and chondrocyte
clusters are present.
Articular cartilage is a thin connective tissue, lining the ends of long bones, and consisting of predominantly water, aggrecan, colla gen type II, and chondrocytes
(Almarza and Athanasiou, 2004; Browne and Branch, 2000).