All the personages were of ripe age; few among them had ever travelled; nearly all had spent their lives in the provinces, and some had taken part in the chouannerie
. The latter were beginning to speak fearlessly of that war, now that rewards were being showered on the defenders of the good cause.
It was probably no accident that even Le Travailleur de l'Ouest and Le Rappel du Morbihan, which covered the two departments that were at the centre of the Vendee and Chouannerie
Wars, referred more frequently to the events of 1789-1794 during election periods than in the course of May Day campaigns.
Los levantamientos realistas en contra de la Revolucion Francesa, que se llevaron a cabo en el oeste de Francia, conocidos como Chouannerie
o Chuanes (1794-1800); la guerra espanola contra Napoleon, que dio al mundo el termino "guerrilla" (1808-1814), y la rebelion tirolesa contra las fuerzas de Francia y Baviera (1809) fueron todos casos de un tipo de guerra que senalo una modernizacion que abrio el camino de la antigua practica de la guerra irregular, que ahora se llama Guerra Partisana.
The sections on the National Guard, the Gendarmerie Nationale, and the Chouannerie
are particularly helpful.
Autre representation de la violence, celle de la chouannerie
, qui permet a Franc Schuerewegen de rapprocher les deshabillages brutaux auxquels sont soumis divers personnages des Chouans et la part de mise a nu qu'impose inevitablement, selon Balzac, a l'ecrivain la publication.
This leads him to pick out events Pinagot was likely to have heard or known about, including the cahiers for the Estates-General, chouannerie
, periods of dearth and popular protest (of which an account is given), conflicts over the local church, the impingement of the outside world in the invasions of 1815 and 1870-1, but not Napoleon.
Here and in Normandy La Chouannerie
whatever Balzac says was little more than a series of badly coordinated local operations quite easily and brutally snuffed out.
and Counter-Revolution (Cambridge University Press, 1983); O.
Distinctions between combatants and noncombatants blurred with the increase of franc-tireurs (the sharpshooters of 1814 and 1870), the passionarias (amazons of the chouannerie
[counter-Revolution]) in 1793-1794, or Louise Michel, leader of the Commune of Paris in 1871.
In western France, the Catholic-Royalist rebellion, the chouannerie
, remained a festering wound.
In addition, the well-publicized excesses of the Midi and the rising tide of chouannerie
in the west had encouraged republicans to drop some of their differences and rally together.