Chretien de Troyes
, French court poet of the twelfth century, holds an important place throughout the history of Arthurian research in that he was "the first to combine a series of Arthurian motifs and episodes into extensive and carefully organized compositions" (Hasselmann 1).
And the authors addressed range from such as Augustine and Boethius in late antiquity or the Anglo-Saxon anonymous who wrote Beowulf in the early Middle Ages to literary figures like Dante, Boccaccio, and Chaucer in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries with stops on the way to address such writings as those of Abelard and Heloise, Chretien de Troyes
, Francis of Assisi, and Thomas Aquinas himself.
She draws connections between his novels and well-known works of medieval literature, such as those by Chretien de Troyes
, King Horn, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, and Sir Thomas MaloryAEs Le Mort Darthur, as well as The Battle of Maldon and Beowulf.
Examining other literary figures from the 5th century such as Vortigern and Ambrosius, the authors also break down the plots of all the major Arthurian romances, including those by Chretien de Troyes
, Sir Thomas Malory, and Robert de Boron, to reveal the historical events they are based on.
1182-1191) de Chretien de Troyes
se inaugura la historia literaria del mito del Grial.
It is true that the idea of a literary court centred on Marie has little or no basis and has effectively been demolished, yet the possibility of connections with Chretien de Troyes
, in particular, is only briefly considered here and is just as quickly dismissed (p.
As the main characters in such novels are invariably judged as possessing innately powerful souls and are deemed to be acting on the basis of respect for some unwritten moral code, this makes such novels, according to Pavel, "idealist." These characters stand in marked contrast, for example, to the knights-errant characters in Arthurian romances where a "great soul" ("anima magna") frequently turns out to be a "skewed soul" ("anima curva"); and Pavel cites several examples of stories by Chretien de Troyes
, Gottfried van Strassburg, and others where chaste love is counterbalanced by illicit love, loyalty by betrayal.
Par-dela le tourbillon de la vie de Zidane, prince des stades et idole mediatique, le roman raconte surtout la quete de Memos, venu du parler rudimentaire et rageur des cites, parti a la conquete de la haute langue de Chretien de Troyes
, Rabelais, Saint-Simon et Celine.
Lynette herself actually appears as Lunete in another major story from the cycle, Ywain, the Knight of the Lion by Chretien de Troyes
. Here she rescues the hero several times from death and gives him a ring which conveys the power of invisibility.
I follow Dinshaw's lead, especially her attention to triangular relationships, to identify latent homosocial or homosexual scenes primarily in three romances by Chretien de Troyes
: Erec and Enide, Lancelot or The Knight of the Cart, and The Knight with the Lion or Yvain, and briefly in a fourth, The Story of the Grail or Perceval, where a scene with liminal homosexual subtext develops between an older knight and a younger whom the older initiates into chivalry.