chromosome

(redirected from Chromosomes)
Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.
Related to Chromosomes: Human chromosomes

chro·mo·some

 (krō′mə-sōm′)
n.
1. A linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary information.
2. A circular strand of DNA in bacteria and archaea that contains the hereditary information necessary for cell life.

chro′mo·so′mal (-sō′məl), chro′mo·so′mic (-sō′mĭk) adj.
chro′mo·so′mal·ly adv.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

chromosome

(ˈkrəʊməˌsəʊm)
n
(Genetics) any of the microscopic rod-shaped structures that appear in a cell nucleus during cell division, consisting of nucleoprotein arranged into units (genes) that are responsible for the transmission of hereditary characteristics. See also homologous chromosomes
ˌchromoˈsomal adj
ˌchromoˈsomally adv
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014

chro•mo•some

(ˈkroʊ məˌsoʊm)

n.
one of a set of threadlike structures, composed of DNA and a protein, that form in the nucleus when the cell begins to divide and that carry the genes which determine an individual's hereditary traits.
[< German Chromosom (1888); see chromo-, -some3]
chro`mo•so′mal, adj.
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.

chro·mo·some

(krō′mə-sōm′)
A structure in all living cells that carries the genes that determine heredity. In all cells except bacterial cells, the chromosomes are thread-like strands of DNA and protein that are contained in the nucleus. They occur in pairs in all of the cells of eukaryotes except the reproductive cells. In bacterial cells, which have no nucleus, the chromosome is a circular strand of DNA located in the cytoplasm.
The American Heritage® Student Science Dictionary, Second Edition. Copyright © 2014 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

chromosome


click for a larger image
1. A coiled thread of DNA found in the nucleus of a cell.
2. A rodlike body containing genes, and appearing in a cell nucleus as the cell divides.
Dictionary of Unfamiliar Words by Diagram Group Copyright © 2008 by Diagram Visual Information Limited
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.chromosome - a threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear orderchromosome - a threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order; "humans have 22 chromosome pairs plus two sex chromosomes"
cell nucleus, karyon, nucleus - a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
nucleolar organiser, nucleolar organizer, nucleolus organiser, nucleolus organizer - the particular part of a chromosome that is associated with a nucleolus after nuclear division
chromatin, chromatin granule - the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins; during mitotic division it condenses into chromosomes
cistron, gene, factor - (genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain; it can include regions preceding and following the coding DNA as well as introns between the exons; it is considered a unit of heredity; "genes were formerly called factors"
sex chromosome - (genetics) a chromosome that determines the sex of an individual; "mammals normally have two sex chromosomes"
autosome, somatic chromosome - any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome; appear in pairs in body cells but as single chromosomes in spermatozoa
chromatid - one of two identical strands into which a chromosome splits during mitosis
centromere, kinetochore - a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape; "the centromere is difficult to sequence"
acentric chromosome - a chromosome lacking a centromere
acrocentric chromosome - a chromosome with the centromere near one end so that one chromosomal arm is short and one is long
metacentric chromosome - a chromosome having two equal arms because the centromere is in median position
telocentric chromosome - a chromosome like a straight rod with the centromere in terminal position
telomere - either (free) end of a eukaryotic chromosome; "telomeres act as caps to keep the sticky ends of chromosomes from randomly clumping together"
body - an individual 3-dimensional object that has mass and that is distinguishable from other objects; "heavenly body"
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.
Translations
chromozom
kromosom
kromosomi
kromosom
litningur
chromosoom
chromosom
cromozom
chromozóm
kromosom

chromosome

[ˈkrəʊməsəʊm] Ncromosoma m
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005

chromosome

[ˈkrəʊməsəʊm] nchromosome m
Collins English/French Electronic Resource. © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

chromosome

nChromosom nt
Collins German Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged 7th Edition 2005. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1980 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1997, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2007

chromosome

[ˈkrəʊməsəʊm] ncromosoma m
Collins Italian Dictionary 1st Edition © HarperCollins Publishers 1995

chro·mo·some

n. cromosoma, la parte dentro del núcleo de la célula que contiene los genes.
English-Spanish Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

chromosome

n cromosoma m
English-Spanish/Spanish-English Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Acrocentric chromosomes are the main origin of sSMCs and chromosome 15 is the most frequent origin of de novo cases that contains 50% of acrocentric chromosomes-originated sSMCs.
BEIJING - By editing chromosomes - the DNA molecules that carry an organism's genetic information - Chinese scientists have created a yeast strain with all the genetic information fused into a single chromosome, rather than the customary 16 for this species.
Using tools of map viewer, the chromosomes were selected and reading of the sequence was performed after enabling the feature ofgraphics.
To explore the evolution of maize landraces in Southwestern China, 30 maize landrace populations were examined to characterize the B chromosomes (Bs).
In (http://science.sciencemag.org/content/355/6329/1038) seven papers published Thursday in the journal Science, researchers from the Synthetic Yeast 2.0 (Sc2.0) collaboration describe&nbsp;the creation of five additional "designer" chromosomes of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), bringing the total number of artificial yeast chromosomes to six.
Aneuploidy refers to an abnormal number of chromosomes, which is the hallmark of human tumors and can drive abnormal proliferation of cancer cells [1].
At first glance, the experiments would seem to suggest Y chromosomes aren't necessary for reproduction, which hints that evolution may eventually show Y's the door.
10 ( ANI ): Researchers have dispelled the common notion that the Y's genes are mostly unimportant and that the chromosome is destined to dwindle and disappear, after comparing Y chromosomes in eight African and eight European men.
"Our analysis indicates this lineage diverged from previously known Y chromosomes about 338,000 ago, a time when anatomically modern humans had not yet evolved," reports Michael Hammer, associate professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.
"Our analysis indicates this lineage diverged from previously known Y chromosomes about 338,000 ago, a time when anatomically modern humans had not yet evolved," said Michael Hammer, an associate professor in the University of Arizona's department of ecology and evolutionary biology and a research scientist at the UA's Arizona Research Labs.
Normal human chromosomes are linear in structure consisting of two "arms" (designated "p" and "q") that flank a single active centromere.
The scientists" findings revealed that the trees had three sets of chromosomes, not four like the other Mall elms.