The most common toxins are Aflatoxins, Ochratoxins, Fumonisins, Trichothecene, Patulin, Rubratoxin, Citrinin
None of the products were found to be contaminated with citrinin
, a potential kidney toxin caused by fungal growth in rice products which ConsumerLab has detected in red yeast rice supplements in previous years.
chartarum Trichoderma viride Ulocaldium Verticillium Mycophenolic Acid Citrinin
Species Acremonium sp.
Thin-layer chromatographic determination of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, citrinin
, T-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, penicillic acid, patulin, and penitrem A.
The important fungal toxins known to occur in foods and feeds include aflatoxins, fumonisins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, citrinin
, ergot alkaloids and ochratoxins A, and patulin, aflatoxins being the most hazardous toxins .
Moreno-Bondi, "Development of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction: Determination of citrinin
in rice samples by liquid chromatography with UV diode array detection," Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol.
Aspergillus species that were isolated produced a typical toxin of citrinin
Akbarsha, Hepatotoxic effect of ochratoxin A and citrinin
, alone and in combination, and protective effect of vitamin E: In vitro study in HepG2 cell.
Zwickel, "Simultaneous analysis of Alternaria toxins and citrinin
in tomato: an optimised method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry," Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, vol.
derivatives from the soil filamentous fungus Penicillium sp.
"We have detected the DNA of microbes and the genes that synthesize paxilline and citrinin
. Further LC-MS/MS assay development is required to detect the presence of these synthesized toxins in the complex background of cannabinoids and terpenoids."
is observed in various grain-based foods (corn, wheat, barley, rice, fruits, grain products ...) [30,14,1,4,41].