Implications of bifaces found in deposits attributed to the Clactonian
At the beginning of this paper it was asserted that the provenancing of a small number of bifaces to these deposits requires a reformulation of some the basic questions in the Clactonian debate.
Excavation of the Clactonian
industry at the Golf Course, Clacton-on-Sea, Essex, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 39: 6-74.
Since the 1930s Barnham has formed a pillar, alongside Swanscombe (Kent), of the traditional framework, with a series of Clactonian
flint industries overlain by a single Acheulian industry (Paterson 1937; Roe 1981; Wymer 1985).
The flint artifacts of these pioneer settlers are of a characteristic type known as Clactonian
, mostly comprising simple razor-sharp flakes that would have been ideal for cutting meat, sometimes with notches on them that would have helped cut through the tougher animal hide.
The basic method underlying tool fashioning at Evron Quarry is the removal of a large Clactonian
notch off one edge and retouching the opposing edge.
Whilst this book considers the archaeological record of the Lower Palaeolithic as a whole, those who know John McNabb will know that he has particular interests in understanding stone tool technology, as opposed to typology alone, and the ongoing debate about the nature of, and reason for, a difference between Acheulean assemblages that contain handaxes and Clactonian
assemblages that contain flake tools but no handaxes.
method, not requiring any initial shaping, offers maximum productivity.
The relationship between Clactonian
(core/flake) and Acheulean (handaxe) industries in Britain has been a subject of controversy for over two decades.
A classic example is the record from southern England, once classified into two industries, the Acheulian (with handaxes) and the Clactonian
structures (for the moment he identifies seven 'structures de debitage': Clactonian
, Levallois, Discoid, Quina, Trifacial, Hummal and Rocourt; and one 'structure de faconnage': bifaces and bifacial pieces)
was the earliest securely provenanced stone-tool culture in Britain.