Identifiable by their black robes, the Cluniacs
emphasised elaborate ritual, rich vestments and precious drinking goblets in their devotions.
In 1098, fifty years after the establishing of the Carthusian Charterhouse, the Benedictines in response to extreme Carthusian asceticism on one hand and in reaction against the pomp and worldliness of the Cluniac
Order on the other--the Cluniacs
being a group that had set themselves apart from traditional Benedictine practice with an autocratic organization centered in the Abbey of Cluny--founded the order of Cistercians in an effort to reinstate the life of the first Benedictines at Monte Cassino.
The contributions of the Cluniacs
and Cistercians might have been given greater prominence.
The earliest evidence for a vocabulary of sign language appears in the 10th century, and at that time the strict speech prohibitions of the Cluniacs
required the monks to express complex concerns - including philosophy in silence.
and the Gregorian Reform, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1970.
Isabelle Cochelin's chapter, "Besides the book: using the body to mould the mind--Cluny in the tenth and eleventh centuries," argues that the Cluniacs
trained the bodies of oblates as well as the minds, and this bodily training included not only corporal punishment, but also emphasized physical and verbal imitation of older monks.
47) The attempt by the Cluniacs
to bring the Saint-Martial liturgy in line with their own is reflected in the liturgical books after the reform; in these the Adam responsories are presented on both Septuagesima and Sexagesima, with the standard French verse texts.
Or consider that Cluniacs
had perhaps 600 houses when the order was at its height.
For the Cluniacs
-- a monastic order centred in Cluny, and a driving force in Romanesque sculpture -- striving to make their churches as beautiful as possible was an enhancement of spirituality, and the most appropriate way to honour God.
Bernard's criticism of the Cluniacs
in his Apology.
Another major area of research is the monastic cult of the dead, and Dominique Iogna-Prat says that for the Cluniacs
the cult of the dead was the keystone of their theology.
At one stage the Cluniacs
controlled 1,000 monasteries.