They were Penicillin, Amoxicillin, Ofloxacin, Cephalexin, Gentamicin, Erythromycin, Co-Trimoxazole
and Vancomycin Sl.
Once antibiotic susceptibility results were available, definitive treatment with ampicillin and co-trimoxazole
was initiated and administration of other antibiotics was discontinued.
Other antibiotics tested were: imipenem, meropenem, tazobactum, amikacin, cefoperazone sulbactam, gentamicin, cefepime, ceftazidime, co-amoxiclav, ticarcillin, aztreonam, cefoperazone, co-trimoxazole
, cefotaxime, cefixime, ceftriaxone, pipemidic acid and ampicillin.
The antibiotic susceptibility testing by disk diffusion and automated microbroth dilution testing (Phoenix; BD Diagnostics Maryland, US) revealed resistance to multiple antibiotics including aminoglycosides (gentamycin and amikacin), ampicillin, and ciprofloxacin and sensitivity to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftazidim, piperacillintazobactam, carbapenems, and co-trimoxazole
, and intermediate susceptibility to levofloxacin.
The children were also placed on co-trimoxazole
(CTX) for opportunistic infection (OI) prophylaxis at some point after HIV diagnosis--in some cases before initiating ART and in others afterwards, depending on the existing national guidelines at the time.
Antibiotics used in this study were gentamicin (G, 10[micro]g), tetracycline (T, 30[micro]g), chloramphenicol (C, 30[micro]g), ampicillin (A, 10[micro]g), nalidixic acid (Na, 30[micro]g), furazolidone (Fr, 50[micro]g), norfloxacin (Nx, 10[micro]g), ciprofloxacin (Cf, 5[micro]g), co-trimoxazole
(Co, 25[micro]g), streptomycin (S, 10[micro]g) and Neomycin (N, 30[micro]g).
coli, resistance was observed most frequently to Ceftazidime (76.92%), Co-trimoxazole
(69.23%), Amoxi-clav (53.84%) and Sparfloxacillin (46.15 %) and less frequently to Ceftriaxone (15.38%), Ciprofloxacin (30.77%) and Gentamicin (30.77%).
The current DoH guideline for treatment of chronic otitis media recommends amoxicillin or co-trimoxazole
for patients allergic to penicillin (Table 3).
A 44-year-old HIV-seropositive man with World Health Organization (WHO) stage IV disease, who had been on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) of tenofovir, lamivudine and efavirenz, and co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis since March 2008, presented with an 8-month history of genital ulceration and a 4-month history of urethral pus discharge.
prophylaxis (CTXP) may not provide significant protection against bacterial infections in HIV-exposed but uninfected infants, and may even undermine the health benefits of breastfeeding, according to research from South Africa.
were resistant to amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, and co-trimoxazole
but susceptible to ciproloxacin.