Present status of investigation and development of ocean cobalt crust resources, Mining and Metallurgical Engineering 19(2): 11-13 (in Chinese).
The Study on the Characteristics of Cobalt Crust and Substrate Rock for Simulation.
The operating principle of cutter cutting cobaltrich crusts with water jet is as follows: cutting force of cutter F and water jet pressure P are applied to the surface of the cobalt crusts at the same time.
Cobalt crusts are formed in areas where iron and manganese has precipitated from seawater over millions of years.
By contrast, the seamounts where cobalt crusts are found tend to be high in biological productivity, Levin says.
According to the ISA, only the Japanese have invested substantially in technologies to recover cobalt crusts.
JOGMEC is the fourteenth entity to be granted exploration licences by the International Seabed Authority but the first entity to sign a contract for exploration for cobalt crusts
This followed disagreements amongst member governments, for instance over a proposed rule that would insist prospectors or contractors notify the Authority should they find resources other than polymetallic sulphides or cobalt crusts
This followed a range of disagreements amongst member governments, for instance over a proposed rule that would insist prospectors or contractors notify the authority should they find resources other than polymetallic sulphides or cobalt crusts
are rich in iron/manganese (ferromanganese), and hydroxide/oxide deposits containing significant concentrations of cobalt, titanium, nickel, platinum, molybdenum (an essential element in human nutrition), tellurium, cerium and other metallic and rare earth elements.