When these cognitions are dissonant (or inconsistent), individuals engage in changing their beliefs and/or behaviors to make them consonant in order to achieve cognitive consistency
. Dissonance can be reduced in four ways, "individuals could add consonant cognitions, subtract dissonant cognitions, increase the importance of consonant cognitions, or decrease the importance of dissonant cognitions" (Harmon-Jones, 2012, p.
In turn, cognitive consistency
theory (Rosenberg, 1968) suggests that people seek consistency between beliefs and observable behaviors and desire to resolve any inconsistencies.
Earlier this year, Bushman and a colleague denied being in the thrall of a "moral panic" over violent media, instead accusing dissenting researchers who "use violent media themselves" of being "biased by the force of cognitive consistency
and experience a 'reactance' of 'regulatory panic.'"
Sometimes such patterns are real and not just a matter of cognitive consistency
. It is a reality with terrorism and crime, even though terrorism is inherently a political act and most crime is more about enrichment.
They cover historical foundations, cognitive consistency
and inconsistency, heuristics and biases, neuroeconomics and neurobiology, developmental and individual differences, and improving decisions.
According to cognitive dissonance theory, humans have a pervasive and fundamental need for cognitive consistency
, such that individuals may adjust their attitude to relieve cognitive tension (Festinger, 1957).
Expectation and Failure in Cognitive Consistency
; a fundamental principle in social cognition.
Thus, efforts to devalue one or more of the disparate elements, rather than downplaying the inconsistencies themselves, aided in restoring cognitive consistency
. These findings, which coincide with Festinger's initial formulation of the theory, point toward the effectiveness of trivialization as a dissonance reduction strategy.
Coverage includes automatic and controlled processes; methods and procedures in the field; the connection between social cognition and topics like consciousness, cognitive plasticity, child development, prediction of behavior, judgment and decision making, cognitive consistency
, and goal pursuit; and the roles of social cognition in attitudes, prejudice and intergroup relations, self-concept and self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, and the meanings of implicit processes for issues of social justice.
He uses Rokeach's (1973) cognitive consistency
theory as a theoretical framework.
We all strive for cognitive consistency
(a kind of peace of mind) as dissonance makes us tense and irritable, like being at war with our inner selves.