One of the potential important clinical differences between Sanger and NGS technologies is the ability of NGS to detect coinfections
by different strains of HCV.
One of the reasons of this higher percentage of different type liver injury among male subjects may be due to presence of coinfections
such as Hep B/C, alcohol intake, and other factors including intravenous drug use.
On the other hand, 17.3% (13/75) had coinfections
with two respiratory viruses.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfections
Visceral leishmaniasis and malaria coinfections
have been reported across various African and Asian countries, with the prevalence among VL patients ranging from 20.8% and 6.4% in Uganda [12,13] to 10.7% in Sudan  and 1.2% in Bangladesh  and a rate of 5.9% among Indian patients with fever and splenomegaly , with the exception of the case-reports [17-20], whose evidence remains anecdotal.
Peter Krause, MD, a research scientist in epidemiology, medicine, and pediatrics at Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, Conn., reviewed what's known about babesiosis-Lyme disease coinfections
at the annual meeting of the American Society for Microbiology.
Based on these premises, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of HIV/HCV and HIV/HBV coinfections
in Tuscany and to analyze their characteristics.
In addition, tick-transmitted coinfections
are now increasing with both unknown and newly discovered pathogens that complicate differential diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment.
After describing the methodology and process of developing the guidelines, chapters cover background on the disease, then recommendations for non-invasive assessment of liver disease stage, who to treat and who not to treat, first and second-line antiviral therapies, when to stop treatment, monitoring, prevention, and management considerations for coinfections
, children, pregnant women, and others, as well as implementation considerations for national programs.
Unraveling the Enigma of Lyme Disease and Its Coinfections
"Natural Treatments for Lyme Coinfections
: Anaplasma, Babesia, and Ehrlichia" by Stephen Harrod Buhner (Senior Researcher for the Foundation for Gaian Studies) is a 448 page guide to the natural treatment of three coinfections
of Lyme disease and includes reviews the latest scientific research on Babesia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma; reveals how these three conditions often go undiagnosed, complicate the treatment of Lyme disease, and cause symptoms from headache to seizures; and outlines effective natural treatments with herbs and supplements for specific symptoms and to combat overreactions of the immune system and the inflammation response.