There is a growing body of literature suggesting that patients with atherosclerotic middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis are at a higher risk of future ischemic stroke, and that the risk of future cerebral ischemic events would be low if the blood flow with unilateral MCA stenosis or occlusion is compensated by circle of Willis, or by the collateral circulation
from cortical artery, otherwise, the patients would suffer from cerebral ischemia and anoxaemia.1-4
Ischemic buttock claudication is generally due to lesions of the common iliac or internal iliac vessels, especially if the collateral circulation
is compromised (Hassen-Khodja et al., 1987).
In patients whose nutritional status is good, adequate collateral circulation
is restored in 4 or 5 days.
Injury severity is inversely proportional to the mesenteric blood flow and is influenced by the number of vessels involved, systemic mean blood pressure, duration of ischemia, and collateral circulation
Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in an adult with systemic collateral circulation
to the left coronary artery.
Surgical repair remains the treatment of choice with a minimal failure rate.5 However, mortality after emergency surgery is as high as 40%, compared with negligible mortality after elective repair.6 Endovascular techniques have many possible advantages such as accurate localization of the aneurysm and easy assessment of collateral circulation
The "telangiectatic spot" on the tongue almost vanished; CTA examination of case 2 indicated a smaller proximal hepatic artery and decreased or ceased hepatic artery collateral circulation
. The Fli-EGFP zebrafish model manifested discontinuous vessel development and vascular occlusion (7 of 10 fishes), and the TGF-[sz]3 mRNA expression of five patients was lower after thalidomide therapy.
Extensive transpleural collateral circulation
in the apices of the lung may mimic tuberculosis by producing an appearance known as pulmonary pseudofibrosis.
Right subclavian artery angiography showed the well-developed collateral circulation
from ascending to descending aorta and right subclavian artery arising from descending aorta (Fig.
The proximal stenosis of left anterior descending branch was 50% and formed collateral circulation
to the distal right coronary artery [Figure 1]b.
However, some patients develop good collateral circulation
, whereas others do not.
For extra-cardiac malformations, 12 patients were discovered to have pulmonary artery hypertension, 11 patients to have persistent ductus arteriosus [Figure 2], 6 patients to have bronchial artery dilation, 3 patients to have an aberrant right subclavian artery, 1 patient to have an isolated left subclavian artery [Figure 3], 1 patient to have aorta-pulmonary artery collateral circulation
and 3 patients were identified having ascending aorta (AA)-descending aorta (DA) collateral circulation