According to the same authors, there may also be cation bridging by columbic
attraction or complexation of the carboxylic group with cations bound to negatively charged sites and surface complexation of the carboxyl group with surface ions of Al and Fe.
Regarding the fixed solution parameters with constant effects of viscoelastic and surface tension forces on the polymeric jet, electric forces including the columbic
repulsion forces ([F.sub.C]) between charges on the jet surface, which introduce bending instability and whipping motions, and the electrostatic force of applied electric field ([F.sub.E]), which extends the jet and propels it towards the collector in the direction of field lines and controls the jet motion, have interactions to dictate the amplitude of whipping motion of electrospinning jet by changing of applied voltage.
BC was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrum, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), electrochemical tests including cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with cycle stability and columbic
efficiency, and rate performance of [Li.sup.+] ion battery.
The interaction between an EFM tip and an insulator is a combination of a capacitive force between induced charges on electrodes due to the capacitance C of the probed region, and a columbic
force between local surface charges [q.sub.s] (if present) and their image charges on the tip -[q.sub.s] [29, 30].
where [SOC.sub.0] represents the initial value of SOC, [C.sub.A] represents capacity of battery, and Z represents the columbic
efficiency (CE), voltage efficiency (VE), and energy efficiency (EE) are defined according to (10):
Being salt marsh species, these plants could withstand highly saline environment which positively affected the conductivity and columbic
In this model the magnitude of the voltage are used to compute the buildup columbic
load using the capacitor block in the model.
The basic elements in QCA are cells; each cell is composed of two mobile electrons that are located in opposite corners according to columbic
energy, resulting in two possible polarizations (P = +1, P = -1)as shown in Figure 1(a) .
The values of A-coefficient are small and positive there by indicating weak ion-ion columbic
Lovley, Power output and columbic
efficiencies from biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens comparable to mixed community microbial fuel cells, Environ.