After a successful flight test in a 15-m (49.2-ft) corridor flight, all birds had a minimum of 1 week in either an individual (raptors and larger birds) or social aviary (songbirds and Columbiformes
Cryptococcosis in Columbiformes
at the San Diego Zoo.
, Gruiformes and Anseriformes showed the value of H below 1 (Table III).
mansoni has been reported in a wide variety of avian orders: Anseriformes, Falconiformes, Galliformes, Columbiformes
, and Passeriformes (Ransom 1904; Schwabe 1951; Chirinos & Godoy 1999; Abrams et al.
However, even in Florida, where dead birds from the dove family (order Columbiformes
) were reported more frequently than dead corvids, the number of dead crow reports, adjusted for human population, was higher in focal areas of WNV transmission, and crow deaths peaked at the same time or before some (but not all) human cases (13).
(128) Complete genome sequencing of C psittaci isolates have demonstrated that there is a similar percentage of difference in genotype A (predominately a psittacine bird isolate) and genotype B (an isolate predominate in Columbiformes
) as there is between genotype A and genotype E (the index organism known to infect psittacine birds and humans).
In laboratory studies, species in the orders Passeriformes (song birds), Charadriiformes (shorebirds), Strigiformes (owls), and Falconiformes (hawks) developed viremia levels sufficient to infect most feeding mosquitoes, whereas species of Columbiformes
(pigeons), Piciformes (woodpeckers), and Anseriformes (ducks) did not (23,36).
Phylogenetic relationships of the columbiformes
have been recently established (Johnson & Clayton 2000a, 2000b, Johnson et al.