The authors revealed that the flame retardant mechanism consisted in two steps: a first DMMP gasification followed by a polyphosphoric-HNTs carbon layer generation on the condensed phase
. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other articles dealing with the effect of the chemical modification of HNTs on the flame retardancy of polymers, especially polyamides.
From the theoretical investigation on the inconsistency of the condensation coefficient [7, 25-30], it was suggested that the presence of a very thin layer above the surface of the condensed phase
, known as the Knudsen layer, resulted from evaporation of the condensed phase
Many problems of practical and scientific interest involve equilibrium between a gas phase and a condensed phase
that is either nearly pure liquid water or pure ice.
The non-ideal behavior arises from: (a) the increase in vapor pressure because of the interaction between different molecular species in the gaseous phase of the mixture (the major contribution); (b) the increase in vapor pressure because of the superimposed pressure of the air on the condensed phase
(the Poynting effect); and (c) the decrease in vapor pressure due to the solution of air in the water condensed phase
with which the gas mixture is in equilibrium (the Raoult or Henry's law effect).
"It's taken the better part of 25 years to get to the point where we could put them in a condensed phase
and make them highly dense and organized," Loeb says, noting these mechanically interlocked molecules move about a nanometre some 300 times a second.
They work in the gas, as well as the condensed phase
of a fire scenario.
The three distinct parts in its compression isotherm (Figure 3) are the liquid expanded phase region at large molecular area values, the inflection point in the liquid expanded region at 119 [[Angstrom].sup.2]/molecule, and the phase transition region from liquid expanded to liquid condensed phase
 starting at 97 [[Angstrom].sup.2]/molecule.
The scientific books he wrote during this period on condensed phase
and optical physics were translated into English and German and are still being used today.
Conversely, experiments had long indicated that the phases of matter did not depend solely on temperature, but on factors such as external pressure, internal atomic composition, and the nature of the lattice adopted in the condensed phase
. Yet, using a single justification, the possibility that certain materials might exist in liquid form within the Sun continued to be ignored.
Using a combination of ADPP and ME improved charring of PA6 and raised the residual rate of P and Al, thus, improving the barrier effect in the condensed phase
The plasmochemical reduction process can be divided into the following stages: evaporation of the raw material (Ta[Cl.sub.5] or Ni[Cl.sub.5]), mixing of the evaporated precursor with the gaseous stream (plasma), chemical reactions in the gaseous phase, formation of the condensed phase
and particles growth, relaxation processes and phase transformations on the surface of the condensed solid particles, and chemosorption processes on the gas-solid interface.