For example, by using ultrashort THz pulses, we will obtain unprecedented insights into the energetic structure of spin-orbit coupling of equilibrium and nonequilibrium conduction electrons
This force, arising from the transfer of angular momentum from the conduction electrons
to the local magnetic structure (cf.
Dynamic nuclear polarisation via conduction electrons
has, however, not yet been demonstrated at room temperature - which is crucial for the method to be useful in practice for the development of quantum computers.
Over the past seven decades, many monographs and textbooks have elaborated the anticipated electric, magnetic, optical, and thermal properties of a simple metal--one of the alkali metals that possesses free-electron-like conduction electrons
, and so a spherical Fermi surface.
Heavy-fermion compounds" are materials in which the conduction electrons
move as if they were hundreds of times more massive than those in conventional metals.
These "chemical shifts" arise because of the variations in electrostatic screening experienced by core electrons as the valence and conduction electrons
are drawn towards or away from the specific atom.
The interaction between conduction electrons
and a localized 2-level-system caused by a defect is analyzed in the present work.
This region therefore is depleted of conduction electrons
and the surface resistivity of the grain increases.
In graphene, on the other hand, conduction electrons
tend to move in lockstep as a single quantum entity.
It is governed by a single parameter, the ratio J/t, where J is the effective exchange between localized moments and conduction electrons
and t is the bandwidth of the latter.
with a spin direction parallel to a material's magnetic orientation move freely, producing low resistance.
The numerical results demonstrate that the in-plane boron phonons are strongly coupled to the conduction electrons
, providing the large electron-phonon interaction in th is system.