(redirected from Confounding factor)
Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.


 (kən-found′, kŏn-)
tr.v. con·found·ed, con·found·ing, con·founds
1. To cause to become confused or perplexed. See Synonyms at perplex.
2. To fail to distinguish; mix up: Don't confound fiction and fact.
3. To make (something bad) worse: Do not confound the problem by losing your temper.
4. To cause to be ashamed; abash: an invention that confounded the skeptics.
5. Used in mild curses: Confound you!
a. To frustrate or thwart: trivial demands that confounded the peace talks.
b. Archaic To defeat or overthrow (an enemy).

[Middle English confounden, from Anglo-Norman confundre, from Latin cōnfundere, to mix together, confuse : com-, com- + fundere, to pour; see gheu- in Indo-European roots.]

con·found′er n.
con·found′ing·ly adv.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Adj.1.confounding - that confounds or contradicts or confuses
unsupportive - not furnishing support or assistance
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The results of this study indicate that a history of previous injury is an important risk factor for HSI and that it may affect other factors (i.e., serve as a confounding factor).
BETTER QUALITYThis is also a possible confounding factor and could have contributed to the results.
There is an important note on the forgotten possible confounding factor for this report.
"Preexisting disease is an important potential confounding factor that must be considered in the uptick in risk observed at the bottom end of a J-shaped curve."
They cover test-retest reliability and validity of three indirect tasks assessing implicit threat associations and behavioral response tendencies; implicit self-esteem predicts observed or spontaneous behavior but not self-reported or controlled behavior; the convergence of direct, indirect, and objective risk-taking measures in gambling; a multi-measure investigation of the divergence of implicit and explicit consumer evaluations; using community data to test the discriminant validity of ethnic or racial group implicit association test; the role of self-related heuristics in prejudice implicit association test effects; intelligence as a confounding factor in the implicit association test effect; and common themes and unresolved questions around implicit measures of social cognition.
One confounding factor, notes McCarthy, is the melting of glaciers since Earth's last ice age.
Another major confounding factor is that Web sites are dynamic, i.e., there are day-to-day, minute-to-minute, and query-to-query differences in the content of sites.
An additional confounding factor has been the interactive relationship of years of counselor work experience with rehabilitation counselor education in relation to client outcome.
Confounding factor such as these can, well, confound the results and lead to incorrect conclusions.
The duration of pill use did not influence the prevalence of misconceptions, nor was age a confounding factor for misconceptions.
Therefore, age was not a confounding factor or effect modifier for DHF case-patients in Tainan's 1998 epidemic.
(1998), such weaknesses of association may occur because BPb is not a sufficiently sensitive biomarker of exposure or dose at the target organ(s) or because the relationships involved are biologically irrelevant and are only found because of an uncontrolled confounding factor. Furthermore, in view of the kinetics of Pb distribution within the body (cycling among blood, bone, and soft tissues), differentiation of low-level chronic exposure from a short high-level exposure is not possible on the basis of a single BPb measurement (Hu et al.