came to be seen as a source of patronage, at the heart of Italy's public finance problems and even responsible for the corruption crisis of the 1990s.
Sillanpaa carefully points out that "it is not necessary to have a large and elaborate administrative structure for consociationalism
to be able to address many of the real needs of a minority such as the Sami" (p.
On the one side, advocates of consociational democracy contend that in societies that are deeply divided along ethnic lines, democracy can be realized only if the effects of majority rule are mitigated by institutional devices that require the concurrence of all groups in all major decisions and the delegation of decisions involving only the interests of particular groups to the groups in question.(30) On the other side, critics of consociationalism
note that ethnic affiliations are not primordial givens; rather, they are manufactured out of social and political conflicts and exploited by elites for their own purposes.
While it may be augmented or strengthened by consociationalism
or the recognition of other forms of nonterritorial power sharing, all have had to find a proper territorial base.
In political science, for example, discussions of "neo-corporatism" and consociationalism
have evolved away from country-based explanations to more sectoral or regionally differentiated accounts (see Streeck and Schmitter 1985; Steiner 1981).
True, the fact that Buthelezi was alone among black leaders in linking himself to such an initiative is equally significant, while Slabbert's decision to join the trek to Lusaka to meet with the ANC may serve to remind us that it is definitely not Buthelezi who is "winning the battle of ideas." At the same time, there can be little doubt that he remains on offer for any "consociationalism
"--he had, of course, attempted to take out a patent on that scenario with his own Buthelezi Commission--or "confederalism" that may be forthcoming.
Western Europe: A Comparative Analysis of Regional Consociationalism
Robert Dahl further develops these ideas and stresses that consociationalism
requires other favorable conditions (Dahl, 1999: 348).
suggests homogenous units, the centripetalism stresses for heterogeneous units.
Institutionalizing the communal divide, the consociationalism
also created electoral incentives for nationalist and unionist political parties to maintain nationalistunionist cleavage structures and political competition based on ethnic divides.
(2.b) "consociational." (2.c) the "semi- presidentialism" ("dualism" + "consociationalism
," with majoritarian traces) (22).
Lebanon's confessional system of government espouses a form of consociationalism
, which guarantees group representation, with the highest offices proportionately reserved for certain religious communities.