At the same time, our brain regulates our GI tract by secretion of hormones such as oxytocin, leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, corticotrophin-releasing factor
, and a plethora of others.
Ghrelin-induced stimulation of colonic propulsion is dependent on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y1- and corticotrophin-releasing factor
1 receptor activation.
In this context, it was shown that deletion of corticotrophin-releasing factor
receptor type 1 (CRFR1) mitigated the amyloid-[beta] pathology in a mouse model of AD, lending support to the notion that suppressing the HPA axis through CRFR1 antagonism may be an effective therapeutic strategy against AD .
The condition has been also associated with trauma, severe burns, drugs (narcotic analgesics, antidepressants, corticosteroids, antipsychotic, calcium channel blockers, narcoleptics, and syntocinon), spinal anesthesia, opioid use, alcohol, cardiac failure, respiratory failure, neurological problems (Parkinson's, Multiple Sclerosis, and Alzheimer's), electrolyte imbalance, stress that causes central secretion of corticotrophin-releasing factor
(which, in turn, inhibits gut motility), and hormones affecting the smooth muscles and, in rare occasions, may occur spontaneously [6-9].
Beck, "Neonatal rearing conditions distinctly shape locus coeruleus neuronal activity, dendritic arborization, and sensitivity to corticotrophin-releasing factor
," The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.
It inhibits a2 receptors and induces excretion of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and their metabolites; it also increases in hydrocortisone and corticotrophin-releasing factor
.[sup] Alcohol inhibits the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate by suppression of postsynaptic-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor.[sup] Alcohol reinforces the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at GABA-A receptors.[sup] After prolonged intake of alcohol, reductions lead to CNS hyperexcitation such as tachycardia, hypertension, diaphoresis insomnia, anxiety, increased BT, as well as hand tremor.
Paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome in which adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), or corticotrophin-releasing factor
, is produced by nonendocrine tumors is mostly associated with SCC of the lung .
The study of the neuroendocrine profile in STC patients had shown that a number of gut peptides, including motilin, corticotrophin-releasing factor
(CRF), somatostatin, and neurotensin, may induce alterations of colonic motility [6-8].
(49.) Giesbrecht CJ, Maccay JP Silveria HB, Urban JH, Colmers WF Countervailing modulation of Ih by neuropeptide Y and corticotrophin-releasing factor
in basolateral amygdala as a possible mechanism for their effects on stress-related behaviors.
Exposure of the non-treated rats to NMS, RS or NMS/RS resulted in an increase in plasma level of the stress hormones corticotrophin-releasing factor
and corticosterone, statistically significant in the RS and NMS/RS rats.
The separated plasma was subsequently stored at -20[degrees]C for determination of corticotrophin-releasing factor
(CRF) levels using rat specific ELISA kit obtained from Hoelzel Diagnostics GmbH (Cologne, Germany) and corticosterone levels using rat specific ELISA kit obtained from Assaypro (St.
Humans respond to stress via the HPA axis, activation of corticotrophin-releasing factor
outside the hypothalamus and activation of sympathetic nervous system via adrenaline or noradrenaline.